Mechanical Behaviour of Engineering Materials Metals, Ceramics, Polymers, and Composites

ISBN-10: 3540734465

ISBN-13: 9783540734468

Edition: 2007

Authors: Martin Baeker, Harald Harders, Joachim Roesler

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How do engineering materials deform when bearing mechanical loads? To answer this crucial question, the book bridges the gap between continuum mechanics and materials science. The different kinds of material deformation (elasticity, plasticity, fracture, creep, fatigue) are explained in detail. The book also discusses the physical processes occurring during the deformation of all classes of engineering materials (metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites) and shows how these materials can be strengthened to meet the design requirements. It provides the knowledge needed in selecting the appropriate engineering material for a certain design problem. The reader will thus learn how to critically employ design rules and thus to avoid failure of mechanical components. ???Mechanical Behaviour of Engineering Materials??? is both a valuable textbook and a useful reference for graduate students and practising engineers.
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Book details

Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 9/26/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 534
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.936
Language: English

The structure of materials
Atomic structure and the chemical bond
Metallic bond
Crystal structures
Polycrystalline metals
Covalents bond
Ionic bond
Dipole bond
Van der Waals bond
Hydrogen bond
The crystal structure of ceramics
Amorphous ceramics
The chemical structure of polymers
The structure of polymers
Deformation modes
Stress and strain
Atomic interactions
Hooke's law
Elastic strain energy
Elastic deformation under multiaxial loads
Isotropic material
Cubic lattice
Orthorhombic crystals and orthotropic elasticity
Transversally isotropic elasticity
Other crystal lattices
Isotropy and anisotropy of macroscopic components
Temperature dependence of Young's modulus
Plasticity and failure
Nominal and true strain
Stress-strain diagrams
Types of stress-strain diagrams
Analysis of a stress-strain diagram
Approximation of the stress-strain curve
Plasticity theory
Yield criteria
Yield criteria of metals
Yield criteria of polymers
Flow rules
Application of a yield criterion, flow rule, and hardening rule
Scratch tests
Indentation tests
Rebound tests
Material failure
Shear fracture
Cleavage fracture
Fracture criteria
Stress concentration factor
Neuber's rule
Tensile testing of notched specimens
Fracture mechanics
Introduction to fracture mechanics
Linear-elastic fracture mechanics
The stress field near a crack tip
The energy balance of crack propagation
Dimensioning pre-cracked components under static loads
Fracture parameters of different materials
Material behaviour during crack propagation
Subcritical crack propagation
Measuring fracture parameters
Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics
Crack tip opening displacement (CTOD)
J integral
Material behaviour during crack propagation
Measuring elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameters
Mechanical behaviour of metals
Theoretical strength
Types of dislocations
The stress field of a dislocation
Dislocation movement
Slip systems
The critical resolved shear stress
Taylor factor
Dislocation interaction
Generation, multiplication and annihilation of dislocations
Forces acting on dislocations
Overcoming obstacles
Athermal processes
Thermally activated processes
Ductile-brittle transition
Intersection of dislocations
Strengthening mechanisms
Work hardening
Grain boundary strengthening
Solid solution hardening
Particle strengthening
Hardening of steels
Mechanical twinning
Mechanical behaviour of ceramics
Manufacturing ceramics
Mechanisms of crack propagation
Crack deflection
Crack bridging
Microcrack formation and crack branching
Stress-induced phase transformations
Stable crack growth
Subcritical crack growth in ceramics
Statistical fracture mechanics
Weibull statistics
Weibull statistics for subcritical crack growth
Measuring the parameters [sigma subscript 0] and m
Proof test
Strengthening ceramics
Reducing defect size
Crack deflection
Transformation toughening
Adding ductile particles
Mechanical behaviour of polymers
Physical properties of polymers
Relaxation processes
Glass transition temperature
Melting temperature
Time-dependent deformation of polymers
Phenomenological description of time-dependence
Time-dependence and thermal activation
Elastic properties of polymers
Elastic properties of thermoplastics
Elastic properties of elastomers and duromers
Plastic behaviour
Amorphous thermoplastics
Semi-crystalline thermoplastics
Increasing the thermal stability
Increasing the glass and the melting temperature
Increasing the crystallinity
Increasing strength and stiffness
Increasing the ductility
Environmental effects
Mechanical behaviour of fibre reinforced composites
Strengthening methods
Classifying by particle geometry
Classifying by matrix systems
Elasticity of fibre composites
Loading in parallel to the fibres
Loading perpendicular to the fibres
The anisotropy in general
Plasticity and fracture of composites
Tensile loading with continuous fibres
Load transfer between matrix and fibre
Crack propagation in fibre composites
Statistics of composite failure
Failure under compressive loads
Matrix-dominated failure and arbitrary loads
Examples of composites
Polymer matrix composites
Metal matrix composites
Ceramic matrix composites
Biological composites
Types of loads
Fatigue failure of metals
Crack initiation
Crack propagation (stage II)
Final fracture
Fatigue of ceramics
Fatigue of polymers
Thermal fatigue
Mechanical fatigue
Fatigue of fibre composites
Phenomenological description of the fatigue strength
Fatigue crack growth
Stress-cycle diagrams (S-N diagrams)
The role of mean stress
Fatigue assessment with variable amplitude loading
Cyclic stress-strain behaviour
Kitagawa diagram
Fatigue of notched specimens
Phenomenology of creep
Creep mechanisms
Stages of creep
Dislocation creep
Diffusion creep
Grain boundary sliding
Deformation mechanism maps
Creep fracture
Increasing the creep resistance
Packing density of crystals
Interaction between two atoms
Bulk modulus
Relation between the elastic constants
Candy catapult
True strain
Interest calculation
Large deformations
Yield criteria
Yield criteria of polymers
Design of a notched shaft
Estimating the fracture toughness K[subscript Ic]
Determination of the fracture toughness K[subscript Ic]
Static design of a tube
Theoretical strength
Estimating the dislocation density
Thermally activated dislocation generation
Work hardening
Grain boundary strengthening
Precipitation hardening
Weibull statistics
Design of a fluid tank
Subcritical crack growth of a ceramic component
Mechanical models of viscoelastic polymers
Elastic damping
Eyring plot
Elasticity of fibre composites
Properties of a polymer matrix composite
Estimating the number of cycles to failure
Miner's rule
Larson-Miller parameter
Creep deformation
Relaxation of thermal stresses by creep
Using tensors
The order of a tensor
Tensor notations
Tensor operations and Einstein summation convention
Coordinate transformations
Important constants and tensor operations
Derivations of tensor fields
Miller and Miller-Bravais indices
Miller indices
Miller-Bravais indices
A crash course in thermodynamics
Thermal activation
Free energy and free enthalpy
Phase transformations and phase diagrams
The J integral
Discontinuities, singularities, and Gauss' theorem
Energy-momentum tensor
J integral
J integral at a crack tip
Plasticity at the crack tip
Energy interpretation of the J integral
List of symbols
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