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Stress in Health and Disease

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ISBN-10: 3527312218

ISBN-13: 9783527312214

Edition: 2006

Authors: Bengt B. Arnetz, Rolf Ekman, Arvid Carlsson

List price: $285.95
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Combining a solid basic research approach with applied individual and stress issues, including interventions, this work focuses on the knowledge about various causes of stress and its neuro-cognitive and biological implications.
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Book details

List price: $285.95
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 9/11/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 434
Size: 7.32" wide x 9.69" long x 1.02" tall
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

Rolf Ekman gained his BSc and MD from Uppsala University, and his PhD from Lund University. In 1991, he was appointed Professor of Neurochemistry at G?org University, a post he holds today. Professor Ekman is a member of the International Society of Neurochemistry, the Society for Neuroscience, The New York Academy of Sciences, ISPNE and ECNP, and has been on the advisory board of Peptides since 1991. He has won both the Smith, Klein & French Research Award as well as the Boehinger Ingelheim Research Award, and has well over 300 publications to his name.Bengt B. Arnetz received his BSc, MD, and PhD from the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, where he became associate professor of…    

Rolf Ekman gained his BSc and MD from Uppsala University, and his PhD from Lund University. In 1991, he was appointed Professor of Neurochemistry at G?org University, a post he holds today. Professor Ekman is a member of the International Society of Neurochemistry, the Society for Neuroscience, The New York Academy of Sciences, ISPNE and ECNP, and has been on the advisory board of Peptides since 1991. He has won both the Smith, Klein & French Research Award as well as the Boehinger Ingelheim Research Award, and has well over 300 publications to his name.Bengt B. Arnetz received his BSc, MD, and PhD from the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, where he became associate professor of…    

List of Contributors
A Multifaceted View of Stress
Modern Fatigue: A Historical Perspective
Overstrain and Modern Society in 1900
The "Fatigue Problem"
Between Nervous Fatigue and Chronic Fatigue: Stress
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Burnout and Modern Society in 2000
Evolutionary Aspects of Stress
Man's Situation in a Phylogenetic Perspective
From Intuitive Insight to Experimental Documentation
Organization of Stress-Induced Response Patterns
General Aspects
The Four Triads of Response
The Vigilance (Freezing) Reaction (VR)
The Playing Dead (Inhibitory) Reaction (PR)
The Defense (Alarm) Reaction (DeR)
The Defeat Reaction (DfR)
DeR and DfR Involvements in Animal Models of Human Society
Implications Concerning Man in Modern Society
Concluding Remarks
Stress - It Is All in the Brain
The Starting Point: Consensus Statements
The Alarm: When and Why Does this Alarm Occur?
CATS: From Words to Formal Logics and Theory
Expectancies: What Do Brains Really Do?
Expectancies: Priorities, Probabilities, and Values
Variance in Stress Responses: Stimulus Expectancy
Variance in the Stress Responses. Coping: Positive Response Outcome Expectancies
Variance in the Stress Responses. Lacking or Negative Response Outcome Expectancies: Helplessness and Hopelessness
The Variance in Coping Concepts
Covert Coping
Outcome Evaluations, Fear, Anxiety and Alarm
Access to the Alarm System
Stress as an Alarm System: Adaptive or Maladaptive?
Allostatic Load - Repeated Strong Arousals - Training or Straining?
Sustained Activation
Stress and Disease: Coping and Health
Sustained Activation, Sustained Attention and Sensitization
Rumination and Sustained Activation
Too Much Coping - Being Too Good: the Dangers of Narcissism
Social Inequality in Health and in Response Outcome Expectancies
Brain Mechanisms
Stress at the Societal and Organizational Level
Collective Traumatic Stress: Crisis and Catastrophes
Introduction: The Individual as a Citizen
Society's Denial of Psychic Trauma and its Consequences to Health
Central Concepts and Models
Disasters: Incidents and Types
Communication Disasters
Confrontational Support
Disaster Stressors
Time Phase and Geographical Zone Models
Individual Versus Collective Trauma
Four Types of Danger
Shock Trauma
Longlasting Danger and Threat
Silent Trauma
Disaster Behavior
Collective Stress: Causal Mechanisms Psychopathology
Psychological Epidemics
Toxic Disasters
Stress - Why Managers Should Care
Stress - An Organizational Perspective
Organization - A Biological Entity
Drivers of Constant Needs of Organizational Changes
Organizational Stressors' Impact on the Bottom Line
Optimal Organizational Stress and Slack
Organizational Stress Models - Concepts and Definitions
Organizational Inefficiency and Organizational Stress
Ingredients for Healthy and Productive Work Environments
Work, Stress and Productivity
Organizational Effectiveness and Perceived Stress
Stress Intervention and Implications for Organizational Health and Productivity
QWC - Theory, Model and Applicability
Introduction to QWC
Theoretical Model
QWC Development
Application of QWC in Organizational Stress and Productivity Studies
Organizational and Employee Health Intervention in a Bank
Organizational and Employee Health During Organizational Changes
Organizational Health, Biological Markers and Productivity
Multiorganizational Assessments of Organizational and Employee Well-Being
Leadership and Employee Job Satisfaction and Organizational Performance
Implementation of Productive and Healthy Work Practices
The Empowered Organization and Personnel Health
A Historical Perspective
Concepts Related to Work Control
How to Evaluate Decision Latitude?
Relationship Between Decision Latitude and Health
Decision Latitude and Physiological Reactions
What Can Be Done for the Improvement of Decision Latitude?
Can Health be Subject to Management Control? Suggestions and Experiences
Health and Profitability
Health in the Balance Sheet
Possible Development
Health in the Profit and Loss Account
Possible Development
HR Costings
Possible Development
Recent Management Control Methods
Possible Development
Health Statements
Possible Development
Health and Management Control in the Swedbank: A Case Study
Conclusion and Dilemmas
Stress and Brain Plasticity
The Neonatal and Pubertal Ontogeny of the Stress Response: Implications for Adult Physiology and Behavior
Stress, Homeostasis, Allostasis, and Allostatic Load
The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
Neonatal Development of the HPA Axis
Early Life Events and the Shaping of the HPA Axis
Pubertal Development of the HPA Axis
Puberty as a Period of Intervention
Implications for Human Health and Development
Conclusions and Future Directions
Neurobiological and Behavioral Consequences of Exposure to Childhood Traumatic Stress
Exposure to Stress in Early Life and Stress Response Systems
Gene Expression, Myelination, Neural Morphology, Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis
Differential Sensitivity to the Effects of Stress in Various Brain Regions
Corpus Callosum
Cerebral Cortex
Cerebellar Vermis
Neuropsychiatric Consequences and Psychopathology
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Borderline Personality Disorder
Dissociative Identity Disorder
Substance Abuse
The Brain in Stress - Influence of Environment and Lifestyle on Stress-Related Disorders
The Dynamic Brain
The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis
Cytokines and Neuroendocrine-Immune Interactions
Is the Stress Response Comparable to an Inflammatory Reaction?
Relationship Between Chronic Stress and Stress-Related Disorders
The HPA Axis Out of Balance - a Link to Depression?
Cytokines and Depression
Neuronal Atrophy and Loss in Response to Stress
Stress-Related Mental Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases
Unhealthy Environments; a Link to PTSD?
Conclusions and Future Prospects
The Healthy Cortisol Response
The Hippocampus as a GC Target
Glucocorticoids, Stress and Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus
Glucocorticoids, Stress and Hippocampal-Dependent Cognition
Glucocorticoids, Stress and Neurogenesis
Glucocorticoids, Stress and Atrophy of Dendritic Processes
Glucocorticoids, Stress and Neurotoxicity
Glucocorticoids, Stress and the Endangerment of Hippocampal Neurons
Disruption of Neuronal Energetics
Endangering GC Actions that are Independent of Energetic Effects
Disruption of Cellular Defenses
Glucocorticoid Endangerment and Apoptosis
Glucocorticoid Endangerment and Inflammation
Clinical Implications
Main Points
Antistress, Well-Being, Empathy and Social Support
Brief Overview of the Fight-Flight or Stress and Defense Mechanisms
Deduction of Physiology of the Antistress Pattern from the Physiology of Breastfeeding
The Chemistry of Oxytocin
Effects of Oxytocin
Behavior and Social Interaction
Physiological Effects
Long-Term Effects in Response to Repeatedly Given Oxytocin
Mechanisms Involved in the Long-Term Effects of Oxytocin
Release of Oxytocin in Response to Touch
Sensory Nerves
Mother and Child Interaction
The Same System is Activated in Connection with Sexual Activity
Oxytocin Is Not Only Released by Stimulation of Sensory Nerves
Conditioned Oxytocin Release
Activation of Oxytocin Release via Psychological Mechanisms
Health and Social Interaction
How Does Closeness and Support Improve Health?
Social Relationships
Lifestyle Without Closeness
Touch Therapies
Stress, Sleep and Restitution
The Physiological Description of Sleep
The Effects of Stress on Sleep
Human Studies
Animal Studies on Stress
Physiological Processes During Sleep
Sleep and Stress Markers
Sleep Loss
Sleep Loss and Disease
Sleep Regulation
Final Comment
Stress and the Individual
Brain Mechanisms In Stress and Negative Affect
Brain-Imaging Techniques and Paradigms
Theories of Emotion and Neuroimaging Applications
Dismantling Fear from Disgust: a Theory Test
Emotional Activation versus Emotional Control: Activating, Controlling and Modulating Brain Circuits
Imaging Stress
Studies of Anxiety Disorders
Disentangling Studies
Function and Structure in Brain-Imaging
Relieving Stress: Treatment Studies
Genetic Influences on Stress and Brain Activity
Psychosomatic Stress and Emotional Brain Circuits
Is It Dangerous To Be Afraid?
Animal Models of Fear's Behavioral Component
Do You Run Because You Are Scared or Are You Scared Because You Run?
A Sketch of the Organization of Fear
The Price of Being Conscious
Mediators of Emotions
To Stop in Time
A Sea Horse that Bolts
Can a Vicious Circle Be Broken?
Fatigue and Recovery
Fatigue - a Distinct Entity or Part of a Syndrome?
Fatigue-Dominating Syndromes
Fatigue Among the General Population
Fatigue, Chronic Fatigue and Chronic Semantic Confusion
Assessing Fatigue
Stress-Related Fatigue
Fatigue Scale Versus Other Scales Assessing Fatigue-Related Conditions
Fatigue Development Over Time - Risk Factors and Protective Factors
The Role of Stress in the Etiology of Medically Unexplained Syndromes
Medically Unexplained Syndromes
Evidence for an Association with Psychosocial Stress
Life Events as Risk Factors for Illness Onset
Occupational Stress and "Technostress" as Risk Factors for Illness Onset
Stress as an Exacerbating Factor in Medically Unexplained Illnesses
Possible Mechanisms
Negative Mood as a Mediating Variable
Symptom Amplification
Classical Conditioning
Chronic Neuroendocrine Dysfunction
Cardiovascular and Neuroendocrine Responses to Acute Stressors
Implications for Diagnosis
Implications for Treatment
Oxidative Inflammatory Stress in Obesity and Diabetes
Oxidative Stress
Inflammatory Stress
Oxidative Stress in Obesity and Diabetes
Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Effect of Insulin
Mental Stress and Inflammation
Atherogenesis and Insulin
The New Paradigm
Future Horizons
The Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic Syndrome
Prevalence and Causes
Insulin Resistance
The Role of Abdominal Obesity
Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine Organ and Site of Synthesis for Inflammatory Markers
Hormones in Metabolic Syndrome
Sex Hormones and Growth Hormone
Measuring Cortisol
Circadian Variation in Cortisol Secretion
Stress Axes
Genetic Factors
Other Conditions
The "Small Baby Syndrome"
Stress and Obesity
Prevention and Therapy
Chronic Pain: the Diathesis-Stress Model
A Conceptual Model of the Transition from Acute to Chronic Pain and Emotional Distress
Data Supporting the Conceptual Model
Base Rates of Psychopathology
The Diathesis-Stress Model
Melzack's Neuromatrix Theory of Pain and Emotional Distress
Summary and Conclusions
Emotional Stress, Positive Emotions, and Psychophysiological Coherence
The Emotional Basis of Stress
Breaking the Stress Cycle: The Power of Positive Emotions
Positive Emotion-Focused Tools and Techniques
Freeze-Frame: A Positive Emotion Refocusing Technique
The Steps of Freeze-Frame
Heart Lock-In: An Emotional Restructuring Technique
The Steps of Heart Lock-In
The Scientific Basis of the HeartMath Techniques
The Generation of Emotions: A Pattern-Matching Process
More Than a Pump: The Heart's Key Role
The Physiology of Positive Emotions
Psychophysiological Coherence
Revisiting the HeartMath Techniques: A Repatterning Process
Heart Rhythm Coherence Feedback Training: Facilitating Coherence
Conclusions and Implications
Stress Systems in Aging - Cognitions and Dementia
Introduction and Overview
Endocrine Systems in the Healthy Elderly
Basal Activity of the HPA System
Stimulated Reactivity of the HPA System
DHEA, Estrogen, and Testosterone
Cognitive Function in the Healthy Elderly and Impact of Endocrine Stress Reactivity
Stress Systems and Dementia
Summary and Conclusion
Stress and Addiction
Stress, Alcohol and Nicotine
What Are the Biological Underpinnings?
Animal Experimental Models
Stress and Self-Administration of Dependence-Producing Drugs in Experimental Animals
Drugs of Abuse and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis
Neurobiological Correlates to Stress-Induced Drug Intake
The Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine System
Stress, Sensitization and the Mesocorticolimbic Dopamine System
Stress and Inhibitory Control
Stress-Sensitivity and Risk for Excessive Drug Self-Administration
Human Studies
Stress and Gender
Sensitization in Humans?