Influencing Through Argument

ISBN-10: 1932716076

ISBN-13: 9781932716078

Edition: 2005

List price: $24.95
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Book details

List price: $24.95
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: International Debate Education Association
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 209
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.836
Language: English

Alfred C. Snider is the Edwin W. Lawrence Professor of Forensics at the University of Vermont and the Director of the World Debate Institute. Maxwell Schnurer is an assistant professor of Communication at Humboldt State University.

Notes About the Updated Edition
Robert Huber, 1909-1996: A Life of Influence and Integrity
Why Use Argument to Influence Others?
Argument Widely Used
The Psychological Need for Good Argument
Argument Defined
Argument Is Only One Phase of Persuasion
The Processes of Argument and the Processes of Reasoning
Argument and Emotion
The Study of Argument Versus the Study of Logic
Growing Demands for Argument
The Role of Argument
In Advocacy
In Propaganda
In Education and Learning
In Inquiries and Investigations
In Discussion
In Debate
In Rhetorical Criticism
Elements of the Study of Argument
With What Kinds of Subjects Is Argument Effective?
Propositions as Subjects for Argument
Purpose of Speakers Using Argument
Types of Propositions
Testing Your Proposition
Am I Interested or Can I Become in the Proposition?
Will My Audience Wish to Hear Me Discuss the Topic?
Is It Timely?
Is It Suitable for the Occasion?
Is It Narrow Enough to Be Covered Within the Time Limits?
Is It Suitable for Oral Presentation?
Is It Subject to Disagreement?
Is It Clear Rather than Ambiguous?
Is It Capable of Being Supported with Evidence?
Is It Significant Enough to Be Worthy of Discussion?
Is There a Basis for Comparison?
Does the Proposition Involve a Single Subject?
Wording the Proposition
General Occasions
Public Discussions
Analysis and Definition
Analysis Defined
Rules for Good Analysis
Subdivide by One Principle
Avoid Subdivisions that Overlap
Uncover All the Parts
No Subdivision Should Equal the Whole Subject
Utilize a Significant Principle
Be Sure that a Proper Interrelationship Among the Headings Is Present
Discovering the Main Issues
Definition of Main Issues
Analysis for Uncovering Subissues
Discovering Main Issues According to Type of Proposition
Propositions of Fact
Propositions of Value
Propositions of Policy
Stock Issues and Stock Ways of Dividing Subjects
Logical Definition
Definition by Example
Definition by Comparison
Definition by Contrast
Definition by Synonym
Definition by Etymology or Origin
Definition by Negation
Definition by Enumeration or Division
Definition by Authority
Definition by History
The Steps in Preliminary Analysis
Complete or Continuing Analysis
Analysis in Reading, Listening, Writing Essays, and Writing Examinations
Writing Essays
Writing Examinations
Gathering Material for Building Arguments
Necessity of an Organized System of Gathering Material
Importance of Your Own Knowledge and Thinking
Exchanging Opinions and Knowledge with Others
Personal Interviews
Letters and E-mail
Conducting Original Experiments and Research
Using the Library
Have a Research Plan
Know What You Want to Find Out
Develop Search Terms
Add Additional Goals and Key Words as Your Search
Utilize Library Resources
Reference Materials
Online Resources
Inter-Library Loan
United States Government Documents
Consult a Librarian for Additional Assistance
Internet Research
Recording Your Data
Influencing Through Evidence
Definition of Evidence
Types of Evidence
Factual Examples
Opinions of Authorities
Testimony of Lay Witnesses
Documents, Legal Papers, and the Like
Arguments to Validate Evidence from Authorities
The Authority Has Made a Study
The Authority Was Trained in Research
The Authority Is Free from Prejudice
The Authority Is Free from Exaggeration
The Authority Is Consistent
Arguments to Invalidate or Refute Evidence from Authorities
The Authority Quoted Did Not Make a Study
The Authority Quoted Was Not Trained in Research
The Authority Quoted Is Prejudiced
The Authority Quoted Is Guilty of Exaggeration
The Authority Quoted Is Guilty of Inconsistency
Arguments to Validate and Invalidate Statistics
Has the Unit of the Statistics Been Carefully Defined?
Are the Statistical Units an Accurate Index of What We Want to Know?
Are the Statistical Units Comparable in Terms of Size and Relevance?
Do Other Studies of the Same Nature Verify These Facts?
Tests of Ordinary Witnesses
Did the Witness Have the Opportunity to Observe the Happening Directly?
Was the Witness Physically Capable of Observing the Happening?
Is the Witness Capable of Accurate Reporting?
Is the Witness Free from Tendencies to Exaggerate?
Is the Witness Free from Personal Involvement?
Does the Testimony of the Witness Constitute an Admission?
Can It Pass the "Hearsay" Tests?
Tests for Documents and Legal Papers
Influencing Through Induction
Propositions with Which Induction Is Effective
Induction Defined
Characteristics of Induction
The Use of Induction in Discovering or Verifying Knowledge
Induction and the Sampling Process
Induction and Public Opinion Polls
Induction and the Case-Study Method
Induction and Experimental Study
Induction and the Empricial Method
Induction and Universal Laws
Lines of Argument to Validate or Invalidate Induction
Are the Facts True?
Are the Examples Universal or Isolate Instances?
Do the Examples Cover a Sufficient Period of Time?
Are the Examples Cited Typical or Atypical?
Are There Significant Negative Instances?
Is the Conclusion Properly Stated?
The "What Harm?" or "So What?" Argument
Influencing Through Deduction
Propositions with Which Deduction Is Effective
Deductive Reasoning Defined
The Syllogism and Its Parts
The Enthymeme
Types of Deduction
Categorical Deduction
The True or Proved Major Premise Versus the False or Unproved
The True or Proved Minor Premise Versus the False or Unproved
Distribution Versus Lack of Distribution of Terms
Four Terms, or the Fallacy of Equivocation
Negative Premises
Disjunctive Deduction
Using Disjunctive Deduction Effectively
Evaluating or Refuting Disjunctive Deduction
Hypothetical Deduction
Rules for Hypothetical Deduction
Using Hypothetical Deduction Effectively
Evaluating or Refuting Hypothetical Deduction
Deduction in Argumentative Speeches
Proposition of Fact
Proposition of Value
Proposition of Policy
A Summary of Lines of Argument on Deduction
Influencing Through Causal Reasoning
Propositions with Which Causal Reasoning Is Effective
Causal Reasoning Defined
Types of Causal Reasoning
Cause-to-Effect Reasoning
Effect-to-Cause Reasoning
Effect-to-Effect Reasoning
Argument from Sign Reasoning
Causal Lines of Argument
Does the Alleged Cause Have the Means, Power, Facilities, and/or Desire to Produce the Effect?
Is This the Sole Cause or Are There Other Causes?
Is This Cause Significant or Insignificant?
Is This an Original or Contributing Cause?
Are There or Will There Be Counteracting Causes?
Has Coincidence Been Mistaken for Causal Relationship?
Summary of the Lines of Argument on Causal Reasoning
Influencing Through Reasoning from Analogy
Propositions with Which Reasoning from Analogy Is Effective
Reasoning from Analogy Defined
Relationship to Induction
Relationship to Causal Reasoning
Lines of Argument for Reasoning from Analogy
Do the Similarities Outweigh the Differences?
Do the Differences Outweigh the Similarities?
Are the Similarities or Differences Significant or Insignificant?
Summary of Lines of Argument by Analogy
Summary of the Interrelationships of the Various Types of Reasoning
Refutation: Blocking the Arguments of Others
Refutation by Challenging Analysis and Definition
Refutation Through Minimizing
Refutation by Denying the Evidence
Refutation by Demonstrating the Opposite
Refutation by Exposing Fallacies in Reasoning
Refutation by Exposing Special Types of Fallacies
Arguing in a Circle
Assuming a More General Truth that Involves the Point at Issue
The Fallacious Question
Appeals to Prejudice (Argumentum ad Populum)
Argument Involving Persons (Argumentum ad Hominem)
Shifting Ground
Argument from Tradition and Custom
An Appeal to the Ignorance of the Opposite
False Synthesis
Fallacy of Division
Fallacy of Equivocation
Refutation by Special Methods
Reducing the Argument to an Absurdity (Reductio ad Absurdum)
Adopting Opposing Arguments (Turning the Tables)
Method of Residues
The Dilemma
Exposing Inconsistencies
Exposing Irrelevant Arguments
Logic Is Not Enough: Use Other Sources of Persuasion, Too
Constituent Elements in Persuasion: Logos, Pathos, Ethos, and Style
This Chapter-A Suggested Outline for Further Study
Pathos: Psychological or Emotional Appeals
Capturing and Holding Attention
Appeals to Basic Wants
Appeals to Blocked Wants-The Hate Object
Appeals to Symbols of Identification
Appeals to Emotionally Loaded Words
Appeals to Sentiments
Associated-Attitude Appeal
Appeals to Prejudice
Other Factors in Pathos
How to Use Emotional Appeals with Argumentative Speeches
Appeals in Main Headings
Use in the Development of Each Argument
Emotional Appeals in the Conclusion
Psychological Factors Within the Introduction
Style: Making the Speech Pictorial, Vivid, Stirring
Choosing Effective Words
Image-Bearing Words
Personal Pronouns and Other Personal Reference Words
Action Verbs
Simple Words
Utilizing Effective Sentence Structure
Simple Sentences Instead of Complex
Periodic Sentences Instead of Loose
Balanced Structure
Parallel Structure
"Grouping of Three"
Utilizing Special Rhetorical Devices
The Direct Question
The Rhetorical Question
Figures of Speech
Literary and Biblical Quotations
The Allusion
Comparison and Contrast
The Long Illustration-Human Interest Story
Repetition and Restatement
Keeping the Speech Moving Toward a Goal
Suspense and Climax
Ethos: Persuasiveness of the Speaker
The Power of Position and Reputation
The Power of Personality
Consideration and Kindness
Sense of Humor and Proportion
The Power of an Effective Voice
Develop a Basically Pleasing Voice
Develop an Interesting Voice
The Power of Effective Use of the Body
Constant Eye Contact
Using Facial Expression
Using Effective Head Gestures
Using Effective Arm Gestures
Every Gesture Has Three Parts
Developing Good Posture
Move to Enhance the Speech
Enthusiastic Desire to Obtain a Response-Avoid Artificialities
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