James Y. Shah, PhD, is Associate Professor of Psychology and Marketing at Duke University. He received his PhD from Columbia University. Dr. Shah’s current research focuses on how goals affect people’s perceptions, behavior, and subjective experiences, with a particular interest in exploring the different regulatory functions of goals, how personal goals are cognitively structured, and how the regulatory and structural nature of goals affects how one feels and how one acts. nbsp; Wendi L. Gardner, PhD, is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at Northwestern University. She received her PhD from Ohio State University. Dr. Gardner’s research involves two broad areas: the social aspects of the self and the unconscious, and rudimentary levels of evaluation and emotion.