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Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruders Fundamentals, Technology, and Applications

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ISBN-10: 1569904227

ISBN-13: 9781569904220

Edition: 2007

Authors: Klemens Kohlgr�ber, Klemens Kohlgr�ber

List price: $199.99
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Book details

List price: $199.99
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Hanser Publications
Publication date: 11/8/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 354
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.936
Language: English

Klemens Kohlgr�ber led the department for high-viscosity, mixing, and reactor technology at Bayer AG until his retirement in 2015. In addition, he has conducted university lectures and training seminars in these areas for many years.

Historical Development of the Co-Rotating Twin Screw
Early Developments
Basic Geometry
Basic Patents
Basic Patent of the Threaded Screw
Basic Patent for Kneading Discs, DBP [16], USP [17], DBP [20]
Basic Patent for Modular Design
Pioneering Period
Machine Development
Use in Chemical Processes
Recognition for R. Erdmenger
New High Viscosity Technology with Co-Rotating Extruders
Screw Machines in Process Engineering
Similarity Theory for Screw Machinery
Versatile High Viscosity Processes
Special Developments from Bayer-Hochviskostechnik (High Viscosity Technology Group)
Extended Kinematics, Profile Geometries
Clearance Strategies
Developments after Licensing
Developments after Expiration of the Primary Patents
Rheological Properties of Polymer Melts
Introduction and Motivation
Classification of Rheological Behavior of Solids and Fluids
Comparison of Viscous and Viscoelastic Fluids
Viscous Fluids
Viscoelastic Fluids
Temperature Dependence of Shear Viscosity
Temperature Dependence for Semi-Crystalline Polymers
Temperature Dependence for Amorphous Polymers
Influence of Molecular Parameters on Rheological Properties of Polymer Melts
Shear Flows
Flow Profiles of Pressure-Driven Pipe Flow
Flow Profiles of the Simple Drag Flow
Extensional Flows
General Overview of the Compounding Process: Tasks, Selected Applications, and Process Zones
Compounding Tasks and Requirements
Tasks and Design of the Processing Zones of a Compounding Extruder
Intake Zone
Plastification Zone
Melt Conveying Zone
Distributive Mixing Zone
Dispersive Mixing Zone
Devolatilization Zone
Pressure Build-Up Zone
Characteristic Process Parameters
Specific Energy Input
Residence Time Characteristics
Process Examples
Incorporation of Glass Fibers
Incorporation of Fillers
Production of Masterbatches
Premix Process
Split Feed Process
Color Matching
Technical Trends in Compounding
Gear Element
Ring Extruder
TPE Production
ZSK-NT Technology
Injection Molding Compounder
Symbols and Abbreviations
Geometry of the Co-Rotating Extruders: Conveying, and Kneading Elements
The Fully Wiped Profile from Arcs
Geometric Design of Closely Intermeshing Profiles
Dimensions of Screw Elements with Clearances
Transition between Different Numbers of Threads
Calculation of a Screw Profile for Production According to Longitudinal Offset
Conveying Characteristics of Different Geometries
Kneading Elements
Modeling: Possibilities and Limitations
The Motivation for Modeling
Screw Design
Modeling Approaches
Model Dimensions
Extruder: 0-Dimensional
Whole Extruder
Pumping Efficiency
Extruder Section
Extruder: 2-Dimensional
Extruder: 1-Dimensional
Extruder: 1-Dimensional, Extruder Section
Extruder: 1-Dimensional, Whole Extruder
Extruder: 3-Dimensional
Model Depths and Results
Extruder: 3-Dimensional, Fields
Extruder: 3-Dimensional, Scalar Values
Simulation: Possibilities and Limitations
Pressure Generation and Energy Input in the Melt
Operating States of Conveying Screw Elements
Dimensionless Representation with Descriptive Impact
Calculation of the Back-Pressure Length
Efficiency during Pressure Generation
Example for the Design of a Pressure Build-Up Zone
Feed Behavior with Shear Thinning
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Why Computational Fluid Dynamics?
Workflow of a Computational Fluid Dynamics Process
Flow Computation and Post-Processing
Computational Examples
Example 1
Example 2
Conclusion and Outlook
Mixing and Dispersing: Principles
Distributive Mixing
Mixing in Laminar Flow
Axial Mixing and Residence Time Distribution
Dispersive Mixing
Dispersion of Solid Particles
Dispersion of Melts, Liquid Droplets, and Gas Bubbles
Types of Loads and Frequency of Loads in an Extruder
Determining the Mixing Quality
Experimental Methods for Determining Mixing Quality and Residence Time Distribution
Degassing Polymer Melts with Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruders
Requirements for Degassing
Function-Specific Design
Flash Vaporization
Multi-Stage Vacuum
Residual Degassing and Use of Stripping Agents
Process Set-Up and Design of Degassing Zones
Process Limits
Process Examples
Devolatilization of Solvents from LLDPE Melt Solutions
Degassing Solvents from Synthetic Rubber (Styrene-Butadiene Compounds)
Degassing Vinyl Acetate from LDPE/EVA Copolymer
Degassing POM
Degassing PC
Degassing PES and PSU
Degassing ABS
Degassing Un-Dried PET
Simulation or Scale-Up - Alternatives for Extruder Layout?
Process Sections of the Compounding Extruder
Feed and Solid Conveying Section
Plastification and Homogenizing Sections
Devolatization and Discharge Sections
Computation Possibilities in the Melt Phase
Computation Possibilities for Discharge Parts
Screw Elements for Co-Rotating, Closely Intermeshing, Twin-Screw Extruders
Design of the Screw Element
Combining Screw Elements
Screw Elements and How They Work
Conveying Elements
Kneading Elements
Backward-Pumping Elements
Mixing Elements
Special Elements
Overview of Patented Screw Elements
DE 813154, US 2670188 A
DE 19947967A1, EP 1121238 B1, WO 2000020188 A1
US 1868671 A
DE 10207145 B4, EP 1476290 A1, US 20050152214 A1
DE 940109 B, US 2814472 A
US 3717330 A, DE 2128468 A1
DE 4118530 A1, EP 516936 B1, US 5338112 A
US 4131371 A
DE 3412258 A1, US 4824256 A
DE 1180718 B, US 3254367 A
US 3900187 A
US 3216706 A
EP 2131 A1 B2, JP 54072265 AA, US 4300839 A
DE 19718292 A1, EP 875356 A1, US 6048088 A
DE 4239220 A1
DE 1529919 A, US 3288077 A
EP 330308 A1, US 5048971 A
US 6783270 B1, WO 2002009919 A2
DE 10114727 B4, US 6974243 B2, WO 2002076707 A1
DE 4329612 A1, EP 641640 B1, US 5573332 A
DE 19860256 A1, EP 1013402 A2, US 6179460 B1
DE 4134026 A1, EP 537450 B1, US 5318358 A
DE 19706134 A1
WO 1998013189 A1, US 6022133 A, EP 934151 A1
WO 1999025537 A1, EP 1032492 A1
US 6116770 A, EP 1035960 A1, WO 2000020189 A1
DE 29901899 U1
US 6170975 B1, WO 2000047393 A1
DE 10150006 A1, EP 1434679 A1, US 7080935 B2
DE 4202821 C2, US 5267788 A, WO 9314921 A1
DE 3014643 A1, EP 37984 A1, US 4352568 A
DE 2611908 A1, US 4162854 A
WO 1995033608 A1, US 5487602 A, EP 764074 A1
DE 102004010553 A1
DE 4115591 A1, EP 513431 B1
The ZSK Series and Applications in the Chemical Industry and for Renewable Raw Materials
Development of High Torques, Volumes and Screw Speeds
Torque-Limited and Volume-Limited Throughputs
Process-Dependent Energy Requirement
Throughput-Energy Diagram
High Torque for Glass Fiber Reinforcement of Plastics
High Torque for Film Extrusion of Non-Dried PET or PLA
Applications of Low Torques and High Volume Requirement
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Applications
Silicone Sealants
Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives
Ceramic Catalyst Carriers
Insulating Films
Battery Separator Films
Metal and Ceramic Mixtures
Pharmaceutical Mixtures
Applications for Renewable Raw Materials in the Plastic and Food Sectors
Composite Materials Made from Wood Fibers in Polyolefins
Biodegradable Materials Made from Thermoplastic Starch and Polylactic Acid
Extrusion Cooking of Cereals for Foodstuffs and Animal Feed
Applications in the Confectionery Industry
ZSK-NT the New Two-Stage Processing System for High Throughputs
Current Requirements for the Processing of Polyolefins
Two-stage Large-Scale Plants for the Processing of Bimodal Polyethylene
Quality Assessments for Bimodal Pipes
ZSK-NT Compared with the Standard Technology
Design of Pressure Build-Up Zones
Material Selection for Twin Screw Extruder Components in Contact with Resin
What is Wear?
Wear in Operating Experience
Choice of Materials for Extruder Barrel and Screw Elements
Materials for Extruder Barrel
Barrel Designs
Material Variations
Materials for Screw Elements
Material Variants
Drive Units for Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruders
Drive Units for Small- to Medium-Size Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruders
Electric Motors
Drive Configuration
DC Drives
Power Converters
DC Motors
Asynchronous Drives
Frequency Converters
Asynchronous Motors
Network Feedback and EMC
Motor Monitoring
Torque Measurement
Torque Measurement for Extruder Protection
Torque Measurement for Scale-Up
Bearing Currents
Bearing Currents Caused by Asymmetry
Bearing Currents Caused by Common Mode Voltage
Bearing Currents Caused by Circular Flux
Avoidable Sources of Error
Corrective Measures
Drive Units for Large Co-Rotating Extruders
Drive Types
Medium Voltage Asynchronous Motor
Medium Voltage Synchronous Motors
Fixed-Speed Drives
Starting Aids
Direct on-Line Starting
Variable Speed Drives
Frequency Converters
Emergency Running Properties
Safety Clutches
Slip Clutches
Mechanically Disengaging Clutches
Gear Teeth