Preface | p. v |

Introduction | p. 1 |

Rubber in Engineering | p. 2 |

Elastomers | p. 2 |

Dynamic Application | p. 3 |

General Design Principles | p. 4 |

Thermal Expansivity, Pressure, and Swelling | p. 4 |

Specific Applications and Operating Principles | p. 5 |

Seal Life | p. 8 |

Seal Friction | p. 8 |

Acknowledgments | p. 8 |

References | p. 9 |

Materials and Compounds | p. 11 |

Introduction | p. 13 |

Elastomer Types | p. 13 |

General-Purpose Elastomers | p. 13 |

Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) | p. 13 |

Polyisoprene (NR, IR) | p. 14 |

Polybutadiene (BR) | p. 15 |

Specialty Elastomers | p. 15 |

Polychloroprene (CR) | p. 15 |

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR) | p. 16 |

Hydrogenated Nitrile Rubber (HNBR) | p. 16 |

Butyl Rubber (IIR) | p. 16 |

Ethylene-Propylene Rubber (EPR, EPDM) | p. 16 |

Silicone Rubber (MQ) | p. 17 |

Polysulfide Rubber (T) | p. 17 |

Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSM) | p. 17 |

Chlorinated Polyethylene (CM) | p. 17 |

Ethylene-Methyl Acrylate Rubber (AEM) | p. 18 |

Acrylic Rubber (ACM) | p. 18 |

Fluorocarbon Rubbers (FKM) | p. 18 |

Epichlorohydrin Rubber (ECO) | p. 18 |

Urethane Rubber | p. 18 |

Compounding | p. 19 |

Vulcanization and Curing | p. 19 |

Sulfur Curing | p. 19 |

Determination of Crosslink Density | p. 21 |

Influence of Crosslink Density | p. 22 |

Other Cure Systems | p. 23 |

Reinforcement | p. 23 |

Anti-Degradants | p. 25 |

Ozone Attack | p. 25 |

Oxidation | p. 26 |

Process Aids | p. 28 |

Extenders | p. 28 |

Tackifiers | p. 29 |

Typical Rubber Compounds | p. 29 |

Bibliography | p. 33 |

Problems | p. 34 |

Answers | p. 34 |

Elasticity | p. 35 |

Introduction | p. 37 |

Elastic Properties at Small Strains | p. 37 |

Elastic Constants | p. 37 |

Relation Between Shear Modulus G and Composition | p. 40 |

Stiffness of Components | p. 42 |

Choice of Shear Modulus | p. 42 |

Shear Deformation of Bonded Blocks and Hollow Cylindrical Tubes | p. 42 |

Small Compressions or Extensions of Bonded Blocks | p. 44 |

Maximum Permitted Loads in Tension and Compression | p. 46 |

Indentation of Rubber Blocks by Rigid Indentors | p. 47 |

Protrusion of Rubber Through a Hole in a Rigid Plate | p. 49 |

Large Deformations | p. 50 |

General Theory of Large Elastic Deformations | p. 50 |

Stress-Strain Relations in Selected Cases | p. 51 |

General Relations Between Stress and Strain | p. 51 |

Simple Extension | p. 51 |

Evaluation of the Strain Energy Function W | p. 52 |

Elastic Behavior of Filled Rubber Vulcanizates | p. 54 |

Equi-Biaxial Stretching | p. 56 |

Constrained Tension (Pure Shear) | p. 57 |

Inflation of a Spherical Shell (Balloon) | p. 58 |

Inflation of a Spherical Cavity | p. 59 |

Second-Order Stresses | p. 60 |

Simple Shear | p. 60 |

Torsion | p. 62 |

Molecular Theory of Rubber Elasticity | p. 63 |

Elastic Behavior of a Single Molecular Strand | p. 63 |

Elasticity of a Molecular Network | p. 64 |

Effective Density of Network Strands | p. 66 |

The Second Term in the Strain Energy Function | p. 66 |

Concluding Remarks on Molecular Theories | p. 68 |

Acknowledgments | p. 68 |

References | p. 68 |

Problems | p. 70 |

Answers to Selected Problems | p. 70 |

Dynamic Mechanical Properties | p. 73 |

Introduction | p. 74 |

Viscoelasticity | p. 74 |

Dynamic Experiments | p. 78 |

Energy Considerations | p. 82 |

Motion of a Suspended Mass | p. 82 |

Experimental Techniques | p. 87 |

Forced Nonresonance Vibration | p. 87 |

Forced Resonance Vibration | p. 87 |

Free Vibration Methods | p. 87 |

Rebound Resilience | p. 87 |

Effect of Static and Dynamic Strain Levels | p. 88 |

Application of Dynamic Mechanical Measurements | p. 89 |

Heat Generation in Rubber Components | p. 89 |

Vibration Isolation | p. 89 |

Shock Absorbers | p. 90 |

Effects of Temperature and Frequency | p. 90 |

Thixotropic Effects in Filled Rubber Compounds | p. 94 |

Acknowledgements | p. 96 |

References | p. 96 |

Problems | p. 96 |

Answers | p. 97 |

Strength | p. 99 |

Introduction | p. 100 |

Fracture Mechanics | p. 100 |

Analysis of the Test Pieces | p. 102 |

The Strain Energy Concentration at a Crack Tip | p. 103 |

Tear Behavior | p. 104 |

Crack Growth Under Repeated Loading | p. 109 |

The Fatigue Limit and the Effect of Ozone | p. 111 |

Physical Interpretation of G[subscript 0] | p. 113 |

Effects of Type of Elastomer and Filler | p. 114 |

Effect of Oxygen | p. 114 |

Effects of Frequency and Temperature | p. 116 |

Nonrelaxing Effects | p. 116 |

Time-Dependent Failure | p. 117 |

Ozone Attack | p. 117 |

Tensile Strength | p. 121 |

Crack Growth in Shear and Compression | p. 122 |

Cavitation and Related Failures | p. 125 |

Conclusions | p. 126 |

Bibliography | p. 126 |

Problems | p. 129 |

Answers | p. 131 |

Mechanical Fatigue | p. 137 |

Introduction | p. 139 |

Application of Fracture Mechanics to Mechanical Fatigue of Rubber | p. 140 |

Initiation and Propagation of Cracks | p. 142 |

Fatigue Crack Initiation | p. 142 |

Fatigue Life and Crack Growth | p. 143 |

Fatigue Crack Propagation: The Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristic | p. 144 |

Fatigue Life Determinations from the Crack Growth Characteristics | p. 146 |

Fatigue Crack Growth Test Methodology | p. 148 |

Experimental Determination of Dynamic Tearing Energies for Fatigue Fatigue Crack Propagation | p. 148 |

Kinetics of Crack Growth | p. 149 |

Effects of Test Variables on Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics and Dynamic Fatigue Life | p. 150 |

Waveform | p. 150 |

Frequency | p. 150 |

Temperature | p. 150 |

Static Strain/Stress | p. 152 |

Material Variables and Their Effect on Fatigue Crack Growth | p. 154 |

Reinforcing Fillers and Compound Modulus | p. 154 |

Elastomer Type | p. 156 |

Vulcanizing System | p. 157 |

Fatigue and Crack Growth of Rubber under Biaxial Stresses | p. 158 |

Fatigue in Rubber Composites | p. 159 |

Effect of Wires, Cords, and Their Spacing on Fatigue Crack Propagation | p. 160 |

Effect of Minimum Strain or Stress | p. 160 |

Comparison of S-N Curve and Fatigue Crack Propagation Constants for Rubber-Wire Composites | p. 163 |

Fatigue of Two-Ply Rubber-Cord Laminates | p. 164 |

Fatigue Cracking of Rubber in Compression and Shear Applications | p. 165 |

Crack Growth in Compression | p. 165 |

Crack Growth in Shear | p. 167 |

Environmental Effects | p. 168 |

Modeling and Life Predictions of Elastomeric Components | p. 169 |

Fatigue Crack Propagation in Thermoplastic Elastomers | p. 170 |

Durability of Thermoplastic Elastomers | p. 170 |

Summary | p. 172 |

Acknowledgments | p. 173 |

References | p. 173 |

Problems | p. 174 |

Answers | p. 175 |

Durability | p. 177 |

Introduction | p. 179 |

Creep, Stress Relaxation, and Set | p. 180 |

Creep | p. 181 |

Stress Relaxation | p. 181 |

Physical Relaxation | p. 182 |

Chemical Relaxation | p. 183 |

Compression Set and Recovery | p. 184 |

Case Study | p. 185 |

Longevity of Elastomers in Air | p. 186 |

Durability at Ambient Temperatures | p. 186 |

Sunlight and Weathering | p. 186 |

Ozone Cracking | p. 187 |

Structural Bearings: Case Studies | p. 187 |

Natural Rubber Pads on a Rail Viaduct after 100 years of Service | p. 187 |

Laminated Bridge Bearings after 20 Years of Service | p. 189 |

Effect of Low Temperatures | p. 192 |

Glass Transition | p. 192 |

Crystallization | p. 192 |

Reversibility of Low Temperature Effects | p. 193 |

Effect of Elevated Temperatures | p. 193 |

Effect of Fluid Environments | p. 195 |

Aqueous Liquids | p. 199 |

Hydrocarbon Liquids | p. 201 |

Hydrocarbon and Other Gases | p. 203 |

Effects of Temperature and Chemical Attack | p. 207 |

Effect of Radiation | p. 209 |

Durability of Rubber-Metal Bonds | p. 209 |

Adhesion Tests | p. 210 |

Rubber-Metal Adhesive Systems | p. 211 |

Durability in Salt Water: Role of Electrochemical Potentials | p. 212 |

Life Prediction Methodology | p. 214 |

Acknowledgement | p. 217 |

References | p. 217 |

Problems | p. 218 |

Answers | p. 220 |

Design of Components | p. 223 |

Introduction | p. 224 |

Shear and Compression Bearings | p. 226 |

Planar Sandwich Forms | p. 226 |

Problem | p. 230 |

Laminate Bearings | p. 231 |

Problem | p. 231 |

Tube Form Bearings and Mountings | p. 233 |

Problem | p. 233 |

Problem | p. 236 |

Effective Shape Factors | p. 237 |

Vibration and Noise Control | p. 238 |

Vibration Background Information | p. 239 |

Design Requirements | p. 241 |

Sample Problems | p. 241 |

Problem | p. 241 |

Problem | p. 245 |

Problem | p. 246 |

Practical Design Guidelines | p. 249 |

Summary and Acknowledgments | p. 250 |

Nomenclature | p. 251 |

References | p. 251 |

Problems for Chapter 8 | p. 252 |

Solutions for Problems for Chapter 8 | p. 253 |

Finite Element Analysis | p. 257 |

Introduction | p. 259 |

Material Specification | p. 260 |

Metal | p. 260 |

Elastomers | p. 260 |

Linear | p. 260 |

Non-Linear | p. 265 |

Elastomer Material Model Correlation | p. 274 |

ASTM 412 Tensile Correlation | p. 274 |

Pure Shear Correlation | p. 274 |

Bi-Axial Correlation | p. 275 |

Simple Shear Correlation | p. 276 |

Terminology and Verification | p. 276 |

Terminology | p. 276 |

Types of FEA Models | p. 277 |

Model Building | p. 278 |

Modeling Hints for Non-Linear FEA | p. 278 |

Boundary Conditions | p. 279 |

Solution | p. 280 |

Tangent Stiffness | p. 280 |

Newton-Raphson | p. 281 |

Non-Linear Material Behavior | p. 281 |

Visco-Elasticity (See Chapter 4) | p. 281 |

Model Verification | p. 282 |

Results | p. 282 |

Linear Verification | p. 283 |

Classical Verification - Non-Linear | p. 283 |

Example Applications | p. 287 |

Positive Drive Timing Belt | p. 287 |

Dock Fender | p. 288 |

Rubber Boot | p. 289 |

Bumper Design | p. 291 |

Laminated Bearing | p. 293 |

Down Hole Packer | p. 297 |

Bonded Sandwich Mount | p. 297 |

O-Ring | p. 299 |

Elastomer Hose Model | p. 301 |

Sample Belt | p. 301 |

References | p. 304 |

Tests and Specifications | p. 307 |

Introduction | p. 309 |

Standard Test Methods | p. 309 |

Purpose of Testing | p. 309 |

Test Piece Preparation | p. 310 |

Time Between Vulcanization and Testing | p. 310 |

Scope of This Chapter | p. 310 |

Measurement of Design Parameters | p. 311 |

Young's Modulus | p. 311 |

Shear Modulus | p. 313 |

Creep and Stress Relaxation | p. 315 |

Creep | p. 316 |

Stress Relaxation | p. 316 |

Quality Control Tests | p. 317 |

Hardness | p. 317 |

Durometer | p. 317 |

International Rubber Hardness | p. 318 |

Tensile Properties | p. 319 |

Compression Set | p. 321 |

Accelerated Aging | p. 322 |

Aging in an Air Oven | p. 322 |

Ozone Cracking | p. 323 |

Liquid Resistance | p. 324 |

Factors in Swelling | p. 325 |

Swelling Tests | p. 325 |

Adhesion to Rigid Substrates | p. 325 |

Processability | p. 327 |

Dynamic Properties | p. 328 |

Resilience | p. 330 |

Yerzley Oscillograph | p. 331 |

Resonant Beam | p. 332 |

Servohydraulic Testers | p. 333 |

Electrodynamic Testers | p. 334 |

Preferred Test Conditions | p. 335 |

Tests for Tires | p. 335 |

Bead Unseating Resistance | p. 336 |

Tire Strength | p. 336 |

Tire Endurance | p. 338 |

High Speed Performance | p. 338 |

Specifications | p. 338 |

Classification System | p. 339 |

Type | p. 339 |

Class | p. 340 |

Further Description | p. 341 |

Tolerances | p. 342 |

Molded Products | p. 342 |

Extruded Products | p. 344 |

Load-Deflection Characteristics | p. 345 |

Rubber Bridge Bearings | p. 345 |

Function | p. 345 |

Design Code | p. 346 |

Materials Specification | p. 347 |

Pipe Sealing Rings | p. 348 |

Function | p. 348 |

Materials | p. 349 |

Tensile Properties | p. 349 |

Compression Set | p. 349 |

Low Temperature Flexibility | p. 350 |

Oven Aging | p. 350 |

Oil Resistance | p. 350 |

Closing Remarks | p. 351 |

References | p. 351 |

Problems | p. 353 |

Answers | p. 354 |

Tables of Physical Constants | p. 357 |

Index | p. 361 |

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