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Environmental Technology in the Oil Industry

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ISBN-10: 1402054718

ISBN-13: 9781402054716

Edition: 2nd 2016 (Revised)

Authors: Stefan T. Orszulik

List price: $239.00
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Description:

This significantly updated second edition identifies the issues and constraints for each stage in the production of petroleum products what they are, who is imposing them and why, their technical and financial implications. It then looks in detail at the technological solutions which have been found or are being developed. It also places these developments in their legal and commercial context and looks at the longer term environmental outlook in the light of increasingly sophisticated models in predicting climate change and other consequences of use of petroleum products.
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Book details

List price: $239.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2016
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 12/4/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 408
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.75" long x 0.80" tall
Weight: 1.848
Language: English

General Introduction
Environmental technology
The beginning
The environmental effects of the oil industry
Air emissions
Water management
Waste management
Technology used in the oil industry
Pollution control
Pollution prevention
Oil Industry future: design for the environment
Design out the production problems
Summary
References
Environmental Control Technology for Oilfield Processes
Introduction
Environmental control technology
Evolution of environmentally controlled oilfield processes
Scope and characteristics of oilfield ECT
Methodology of ECT design
ECT analysis of drilling process
Mechanisms of drilling waste discharge
Sources of drilling waste toxicity
Waste generation mechanisms in petroleum production
Sources of toxicity in produced water
References
Environmental Control of Well Integrity
Introduction
Mechanism of cement seal failures
Improved cementing for annular integrity
Cement pulsation after placement
Integrity of injection wells
Measurements of well integrity
Sustained casinghead pressure
Rig methods for SCP isolation
Rig-less technology for SCP isolation
References
Environmental Control of Drilling Fluids and Produced Water
Control of drilling fluid volume
Control of mud dispersibility
Improved solids-control-closed-loop systems
Dewatering of drilling fluids: 'dry' drilling location
Control of drilling fluid toxicity
Drilling fluid toxicity testing
Low-toxicity substitutes
Synthetic base drilling fluids
Source separation - drill cuttings de-oiling
Control of produced water volume
Source reduction - water shut-off technology
Source separation-downhole oil/gas/water separation
Source reduction with downhole water sink
Control of produced water pollutants
Oil-free water from DWS drainage-production systems
Deoiling of produced water
Removal of dissolved organics from produced water
Produced water salinity reduction
References
Oilfield Waste Disposal Control
Introduction
Oilfield waste disposal to land
Impact of oilfield pit contaminants
Oilfield pit sampling and evaluation
Oilfield pit closure: liquid phase
Oilfield pit closure: solid phase
Subsurface waste disposal to wells
Description of slurry injection process of muds and cuttings
Slurry fracture injection of muds and cuttings
Properties of injected slurries
Environmental implications of subsurface slurry injection
Periodic injection to multiple fractures
References
Drilling and Production Discharges in the Marine Environment
Introduction
Nature of offshore discharges
Produced water
Drilling waste
Magnitude of waste discharges
Accidental discharges
Wastes that require handling during site abandonment
Potential impacts on the environment
Introduction
Potential impacts from produced water
Potential impacts from drilling waste
Potential impacts from treating chemicals
Potential impacts from accidental discharges
Regulatory approaches
Regulations for waste discharges
OSPAR agreements and national regulations for the OSPAR area
United states regulations
Comparing and contrasting OSPAR and United States EPA regulations
Russian and former Soviet Republics regulations
Other regulatory systems
Accidental discharges
Should the release be re-mediated?
Sources of data on discharges to the marine environment
References
Decommissioning of Offshore Oil and Gas Installations
Introduction
Legal framework of platform decommissioning
Planning
Abandonment phases
Well abandonment
Preabandonment surveys/data gathering
Engineering
Decommissioning
Structure removal
Disposal
Site clearance
Conclusion
References
Tanker Design: Recent Developments from an Environmental Perspective
Introduction
Tanker accidents
Tanker design
New tanker design standards: the USA takes the lead
New tanker designs: the international debate in the early 1990s
Some developments since the adoption of the new MARPOL regulations in 1992
Some observations regarding the effectiveness of MARPOL's double hull requirements
Epilogue
References
Pipeline Technology
Introduction
Environmental pressures
Onshore pipelines
Design
Construction
Operation
Decommissioning
Offshore pipelines
Design
Construction
Operation
Decommissioning
Pipeline landfalls
Design
Construction
References
Environmental Management and Technology in Oil Refineries
Function of an oil refinery
Overview
Control of atmospheric emissions
Minimizing combustion-related emissions
Minimizing flare-related emissions
Minimizing fugitive emissions
Odour control
Sulphur removal and recovery
Control of aqueous emissions
Source control
Effluent treatment
Soil and groundwater protection
Source control
Monitoring
Remediation
Preventive techniques
Control of solid wastes
Source control
Waste treatment
Waste disposal
Recycling to minimize waste
Reuse on-site
Off-site recycling
Environmental management
Environmental control
Environmental training
Environmental auditing
References
Distribution, Marketing and Use of Petroleum Fuels
Introduction
Main refinery product types
Protection of the environment
The atmosphere
Sea waters: compliance with maritime regulations
Soil and groundwater
Distributing the products
Distribution systems
Anti-pollution controls
The atmosphere
The high seas
Coastal and inland waterways
Soil and groundwater
Marketing the products
Large industrial customer installations
Small industrial and domestic customers
Service stations
Environmental technologies related to product use
Fuels
Marine diesel engines and fuels
Fuels for large industrial power plants
Fuels for small industrial and domestic installations
Aircraft engines and fuels
Engines for rail transport
Automotive engines
Into the next millenium
Further reading
Lubricants
Introduction
Performance
Components
Base fluids
Mineral oils
Synthetic base oils
Polyol esters
Poly-a-olefins
Hydrocracked mineral oils
Additives
Actual environmental effects
Biodegradability
Biodegradation is not necessary in a lubricant
A biodegradable lubricant will encourage dumping at the expense of collection and disposal
A biodegradable lubricant will degrade in the engine
A biodegradable lubricant will result in high concentrations of toxic residues that are detrimental to the environment
Biodegradation is not necessary, as motor manufacturers are now producing sealed lubricant systems
Collection and recycling of used oils
Conclusion
References
Climate Change Scenarios and Their Potential Impact on World Agriculture
What causes the climate system to change?
Past climatic changes
Anthropogenic forcing of the climate system
Future changes in anthropogenic forcing
Implications of SRES scenarios on global climate
Temperature
Precipitation
Sea level rise
Mitigation possibilities within the agricultural sector
Implications of SRES scenarios on regional climate
Europe
North America
Impacts of future climate change on agriculture
Europe
North America
References
Color Plates
Index