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Contaminated Rivers A Geomorphological-Geochemical Approach to Site Assessment and Remediation

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ISBN-10: 1402052863

ISBN-13: 9781402052866

Edition: 2007

Authors: Jerry R. Miller, Suzanne M. Orbock Miller

List price: $99.99
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Description:

Increasingly, attention is being given to the remediation of contaminated river reaches, some of which cover 10s of kilometers of stream channel and the adjacent valley floor. Post-remediation reviews have shown that there is a critical need to more thoroughly incorporate knowledge of the catchment's geomorphology and surficial processes into site characterization, assessment, and remediation strategies. The primary purpose of this book is to provide students and professionals with an introductory understanding of fluvial geomorphic principles and how these principles can be integrated with geochemical data to cost-effectively characterize, assess and remediate contaminated rivers. We stress the importance of needing to understand both geomorphic and geochemical processes. A process-oriented approach is required because it goes beyond the simple description of the river channel and its associated drainage basin to enhance the predictive capabilities of models used in the investigation of riverine environments. Thus, the overall presentation is first an analysis of physical and chemical processes and, second, a discussion of how an understanding of these processes can be applied to specific aspects of site assessment and remediation. We also emphasize the need to take a catchment-scale approach when conducting site investigations, and the potential for changes in process rates through time as a result of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Such analyses provide the basis for a realistic prediction of the kinds of environmental responses that might be expected, for example, during future changes in climate or land-use.
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Book details

List price: $99.99
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 3/30/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 418
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.892
Language: English

Preface
Contaminated Rivers: An Overview
Introduction
Types of Contaminants
Organic Contaminants
Inorganic Contaminants
National Assessments of River Health
The National Water Quality Inventory
The National Sediment Quality Survey
The National Water-Quality Assessment Program
Sources of Contamination
The Dissolved Versus Particulate Load
Site Characterization, Assessment, and Remediation
The Geomorphological-Geochemical Approach
Summary
Suggested Readings
Sediment-Trace Metal Interactions 24
Introduction
Physical Partitioning of Trace Metals in Sediment
Chemical Partitioning of Trace Elements in Sediment
Mechanistic Associations
Chemically Reactive Substrates
Elemental Speciation
Chemical Remobilization
Summary
Suggested Readings
Basin Processes
Introduction
Hillslope Hydrology
Direct Runoff Generation
Flood Hydrographs
Contaminant Transport Pathways
The Controlling Factors
Transport via Hortonian Overland Flow
Mapping Spatial Variations in Metal Sources
Hillslope Erosion
Basic Mechanics
Measurement of Erosion Rates
Prediction of Erosion Rates
Summary
Suggested Readings
The Water Column - Concentration and Load
Introduction
Temporal Variations in Concentration
Dissolved Constituents
Particulate and Particulate-Borne Contaminant Concentrations
Sediment and Contaminant Loads
Load Estimation
The Effective Transporting Discharge
Summary
Suggested Readings
The Channel Bed - Contaminant Transport and Storage
Introduction
Sediment Transport
Modes of Transport
Channelized Flow
Entrainment
Processes of Contaminant Dispersal
Hydraulic Sorting
Dilution and Exchange with the Floodplain
Sediment Storage and Exchange Mechanisms
Geochemical Processes and Biological Uptake
Downstream Patterns
Impoundment Failures
Deposition and Storage along a Reach
Channel Patterns
Trace Metal Partitioning Mechanisms
Implications to Sampling
Physical and Mathematical Manipulations
Temporal Variations in Concentration
Summary
Suggested Readings
Floodplains
Introduction
Floodplains: Definition
The Formative Processes
Floodplain Sediments
Floodplain Deposits
Trace Metal Storage and Distribution
Grain Size Variations
Residence Time and Deposit Age
Sediment Mixing and Homogenization
Post-Depositional Processes
Overbank Sediments
Depositional Rates and Patterns
Geographical Patterns in Contaminant Concentrations
Documenting Pollution Histories
Sediment and Contaminant Source Determination
Non-point Source Multivariate Fingerprinting Methods
Isotopic Tracing Methods
Physical Remobilization
Bank Erosion Processes
Summary
Suggested Readings
River Metamorphosis
Introduction
The Balanced Condition
Thresholds, Complex Response, and Process Linkages
Adjustments in Channel Gradient, Shape, and Pattern
Effects of River Metamorphosis
Terraces
Definition and Formative Processes
Trace Metal Distributions
Quantifying Extent and Magnitude of Contamination
Summary
Suggested Readings
Remediation and Remediation Standards
Introduction
Setting Remediation Standards
Background Concentrations
Health and Risk Based Standards
Prioritizing Cleanup
Summary
Suggested Readings
Ex Situ Remediation and Channel Restoration
Introduction
Ex Situ Remediation Techniques
Excavation
Dredging
Ex Situ Treatments
Dewatering and Particle Separation
Soil Washing
Other Treatment Alternatives
River Restoration and Rehabilitation
Goals and Objectives
Channel Reconstruction
In-stream Structures, Bank Protection, and Habitat Formation
Summary
Suggested Readings
In Situ Remediation
Introduction
In Situ Extraction
Soil Flushing
Electrokinetic Separation
Phytoremediation
In Situ Containment
In Situ (Subaqueous) Capping
Soil and Sediment Capping
In Situ Solidification and Stabilization
Phytostabilization and Immobilization
Monitored Natural Recovery
Summary
Suggested Readings
Dating Techniques
Introduction
Short-Lived Radionuclides (Pb-210 and Cs-137)
Radiocarbon (C-14)
Luminescence Techniques (TL, IRSL, and OSL)
Marker Beds (Tephra, Trace Metals)
Dendrochronology
Unit Conversions and Elemental Data
References
Glossary
Credits
Index