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Design of Dependable Computing Systems

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ISBN-10: 1402004370

ISBN-13: 9781402004377

Edition: 2002

Authors: Jean-Claude Geffroy, Gilles Motet

List price: $119.99
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A general overview of the dependability of computing systems, their impairments and protective means. Issues, concepts and techniques are considered from a system point of view, and are illustrated by both hardware and software technologies.
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Book details

List price: $119.99
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 2/28/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 672
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.992

Preface
Introductory Elements: Dependability Issues
Quality
Quality Needs of Computer Systems
Quality Attributes
Dependability
Product Failures and their Consequences
Failure Causes
Taking Faults into Account
Definitions of Dependability
Means of Dependability
Evolution
Means
Summary
Destructive Mechanisms
General Context
Application Context
Life Cycle
Principles
Specification
Design
Production
Operation
Product Model
Product Structure and Functioning
Hierarchy
Examples
Refinement Process and Primitive Components
Logical Part of a Drinks Distributor
Specifications
Design
Production
Operation
Failures and Faults
Failures
Definition
Characterization of Failures
Faults
Difficulties in Identifying the Causes of a Failure
Fault Characterization
Fault Origin
Nature of the Fault
Faults Occurring in the Life Cycle
Specification and Design Faults
Production Faults
Operational Faults
Examples of Functional Faults Altering a Drinks Distributor
Description of the Product
Faults Due to Functional Specifications
Faults Due to Technological Constraints
Design Faults
Interests and Limits of Fault Classes
Simplified Classification
Limitations of the Classification
Protection Against Faults and their Effects
Exercises
Faults and their Effects
Internal Effects
Fault
Error
Error Propagation
Latency
External Effects: Consequences
External Consequences of Faults
Inertia of the Functional Environment
Completeness and Compatibility
Influence of the Functional Environment: Emergence
Conclusion on the Effects of Faults
Exercises
Fault and Error Models
Definitions
Structural and Behavioral Properties
Structural Properties
Behavioral Properties
Significant Fault and Error Models
Faults and Errors at Different Representation Levels
Hardware Fault/Error Models
Software Fault and Error Models
Fault and Error Model Assessment
Assessment Criteria
Relations Between Fault/Error Models and Failures
Analysis of Two Simple Examples
First example: an Hardware Full Adder
Second Example: a Software Average Function
Exercises
Protective Mechanisms
Towards the Mastering of Faults and their Effects
Three Approaches
Fault Prevention
During the Specification
During the Design
During the Production
During the Operation
Fault Removal
General Notions
During Specification and Design
During the Production
During the Operation
Fault Tolerance
Failure Prevention by Masking
Error Detection and Correction
Fail-Safe Techniques
Resulting Fault Tolerance Classes
Dependability Means and Assessment
Conclusion
Dependability Assessment
Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment
Quantitative Assessment
Qualitative Assessment
Synthesis
Reliability
General Characteristics of the Reliability of Electronic Systems
Reliability Models
Failure Rate Estimation
Reliability Evolution
Testability
Maintainability
Maintenance
Maintainability
Reliability and Maintainability
Availability
Safety
Security
Synthesis of the Main Criteria
Quantitative Analysis Tools at System Level
Fault Simulation
Reliability Block Diagrams
Non-Deterministic State Graph Models
Inductive Qualitative Assessment: Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
Principles
Means
FMECA
Deductive Qualitative Assessment: Fault Tree Method
Principles
Software Example
Use of the FTM
Exercises
Redundancy
Functional and Structural Redundancy
Linguistic Redundancy
Redundancy of Computer Systems
Functional Redundancy
Static Functional Domains
Dynamic Functional Domains
Generalization of Functional Redundancy
Redundancy and Module Composition
Structural Redundancy
Definition and Illustration
Active and Passive Redundancy
Separable Redundancy
Summary of the Various Redundancy Forms
Exercises
Fault Avoidance Means
Avoidance of Functional Faults During Specification
Introduction
Specification Phase
Validation and Verification
Fault Prevention During the Requirement Expression
Introduction
Help in the Capturing of Needs
Expression Aid
Evaluation of a Method
Fault Avoidance During the Specification Phase
Fault Prevention: Valid Method
Fault Removal: Verification of the Specifications
Review Techniques
Principles
Walkthrough
Inspection
Exercise
Avoidance of Functional Faults During Design
Principles
Prevention by Design Model Choice
Prevention by Design Process Choice
General Considerations
Design Guide
Expression Guide
Fault Removal
Verification with the Specifications
Fault Removal without Specifications
Functional Test
Input Sequence
Output Sequence
Functional Diagnosis
Analysis of an Arithmetic Unit
Formal Proof Methods
Inductive Approach and Symbolic Execution
Deductive Approach and FTM
Exercises
Prevention of Technological Faults
Parameters of the Prevention of Technological Faults
Hardware Technology
Software Technology
Prevention of Technological Faults
Action on the Product
Hardware Technology
Software Technology
Action on the Environment
Hardware Technology
Software Technology
Exercises
Removal of Technological Faults
Off-Line Testing
Context of Off-Line Testing
Different Kinds of Tests and Testers
Logical Testing
Logical Testers
Test Parameters
Production Testing
Maintenance Testing
Principles of Logical Test Generation
Logical Testing
Determination of Input Vectors Testing a Fault
Fault Grading
Test Pattern Generation of Combinational Systems
Test of Sequential Systems
Exercises
Structural Testing Methods
Generation of Logical Test by a Gate Level Structural Approach
Test Generation for a Given Error
Principles of the Method
Activation and Backward Propagation
Forward Propagation
Justification
Complete Study of a Small Circuit
Test of Structured Circuits
Determination of the Faults/Errors Detected by a Given Test Vector
Principles of the Method
Study of a Small Circuit
Diagnosis of a Test Sequence
General Problem of the Diagnosis
Study of a Small Circuit
Influence of Passive Redundancy on Detection and Diagnosis
Detection Test without Error Model. Application to Software
The Problem of Structural Test without Error Model
Statement Test
Branch & Path Test
Condition & Decision Test
Finite State Machine Identification
Diagnosis without Fault Models
Principles
Highlight the Erroneous Situations
Elaborate the Hypotheses
Confirm the Hypotheses
Verify the Hypotheses
Mutation Test Methods
Principles and Pertinence of Mutation Methods
Mutation Testing Technique
Exercises
Design For Testability
Introduction
Test Complexity
General Principles of Design For Testability
Ad Hoc Approach to DFT
Guidelines
Instrumentation: Data Recording
Exception Mechanisms: Error Propagation
Design of Systems Having Short Test Sequences
Illustration on Electronic Products
Illustration on Software Applications
Built-In Test (BIT)
Introduction
The FIT PLA
Scan Design and LSSD
Boundary Scan
Discussion about BIT Evolution
Built-In Self-Test (BIST)
Principles
Test Sequence Generation and Signature Analysis
Towards On-Line Testing
To Place the Tester in the Application Site
In-situ Maintenance Operation
Integration of the Tester to the Product's Activity
Exercises
Fault Tolerance Means
Error Detecting and Correcting Codes
General Context
Error Model
Redundant Coding
Application to Error Detection and Correction
Limitations of our Study
Definitions
Separable and Non-Separable Codes
Hamming Distance
Redundancy and Efficiency
Parity Check Codes
Single Parity Code
Multiple Parity Codes
Unidirectional Codes
M-out-of-n Codes
Two-Rail Codes
Berger Codes
Arithmetic Codes
Limitations of the Hamming Distance
Residual Codes
Application of EDC Codes to Different Classes of Systems
Exercises
On-Line Testing
Two Approaches of On-Line Testing
Discontinuous Testing
External Tester
Test Performed by One of the Regulators
Test Distributed Between the Regulators
Precautions
Continuous Testing: Self-Testing
Principles
Use of Functional Redundancy
Use of Structural Redundancy
Exercises
Fail-Safe Systems
Risk and Safety
Seriousness Classes
Risk and Safety Classes
Fail-Safe Systems
Fail-Safe Techniques
Intrinsic Safety
Safety by Structural Redundancy
Self-Testing Systems and Fail-Safe Systems
Fail-Safe Applications
Exercises
Fault-Tolerant Systems
Introduction
Aims
From Error Detection Towards Fault Tolerance
N-Versions
Principles
Realization of the Duplicates and the Voter
Performance Analysis
Backward Recovery
Principles and Use
Recovery Cache
Recovery Points
Forward Recovery
Principles
Recovery Blocks
Termination Mode
Comparison
Similarities
Differences
Use of Multiple Techniques
Impact on the Design
Some Application Domains
Watchdog and Reset
Avionics Systems
Data Storage
Data Transmission
Exercises
Conclusions
Needs and Impairments
Dependability Needs
Dependability Impairments
Protective Means
Fault Prevention
Fault Removal
Fault Tolerance
Dependability Assessment
Quantitative Approaches
Qualitative Approaches
Choice of Methods
Error Detecting and Correcting Codes
Reliability Block Diagrams
Testing Features of a Microprocessor
Study of a Software Product
Answer to the Exercises
Glossary
References
Index