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Guide to Load Analysis for Durability in Vehicle Engineering

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ISBN-10: 1118648315

ISBN-13: 9781118648315

Edition: 2014

Authors: P. Johannesson, M. Speckert

List price: $209.95
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The overall goal of vehicle design is to make a robust and reliable product that meets the demands of the customers and this book treats the topic of analysing and describing customer loads with respect to durability.Guide to Load Analysis for Vehicle and Durability Engineering supplies a variety of methods for load analysis and also explains their proper use in view of the vehicle design process. In Part I, Overview, there are two chapters presenting the scope of the book as well as providing an introduction to the subject. Part II, Methods for Load Analysis, describes useful methods and indicates how and when they should be used. Part III, Load Analysis in view of the Vehicle Design…    
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Book details

List price: $209.95
Copyright year: 2014
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 10/18/2013
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 456
Size: 7.10" wide x 10.00" long x 1.04" tall
Weight: 1.848
Language: English

About the Editors
Series Editor's Preface
Durability in Vehicle Engineering
Reliability, Variation and Robustness
Load Description for Trucks
Why Is Load Analysis Important?
The Structure of the Book
Loads for Durability
Fatigue and Load Analysis
Constant Amplitude Load
Block Load
Variable Amplitude Loading and Rainflow Cycles
Rainflow Matrix, Level Crossings and Load Spectrum
Other Kinds of Fatigue
Loads in View of Fatigue Design
Fatigue Life: Cumulative Damage
Fatigue Limit: Maximum Load
Sudden Failures: Maximum Load
Safety Critical Components
Design Concepts in Aerospace Applications
Loads in View of System Response
Loads in View of Variability
Different Types of Variability
Loads in Different Environments
Methods for Load Analysis
Basics of Load Analysis
Amplitude-based Methods
From Outer Loads to Local Loads
Pre-processing of Load Signals
Rainflow Cycle Counting
Range-pair Counting
Markov Counting
Range Counting
Level Crossing Counting
Interval Crossing Counting
Irregularity Factor
Peak Value Counting
Examples Comparing Counting Methods
Pseudo Damage and Equivalent Loads
Methods for Rotating Components
Recommendations and Work-flow
Frequency-based Methods
The PSD Function and the Periodogram
Estimating the Spectrum Based on the Periodogram
Spectrogram or Waterfall Diagram
Frequency-based System Analysis
Extreme Response and Fatigue Damage Spectrum
Wavelet Analysis
Relation Between Amplitude and Frequency-based Methods
More Examples and Summary
Multi-input Loads
From Outer Loads to Local Loads
The RP Method
Plotting Pseudo Damage and Examples
Equivalent Multi-input Loads
Phase Plots and Correlation Matrices for Multi-input Loads
Multi-input Tune at Level Counting
Biaxiality Plots
The Wang-Brown Multi-axial Cycle Counting Method
Load Editing and Generation of Time Signals
Essential Load Properties
Criteria for Equivalence
Data Inspections and Corrections
Examples and Inspection of Data
Detection and Correction
Load Editing in the Time Domain
Amplitude-based Editing of Time Signals
Frequency-based Editing of Time Signals
Amplitude-based Editing with Frequency Constraints
Editing of Time Signals: Summary
Load Editing in the Rainflow Domain
Extrapolation on Length or Test Duration
Extrapolation to Extreme Usage
Load Editing for ID Counting Results
Summary, Hints and Recommendations
Generation of Time Signals
Amplitude-or Cycle-based Generation of Time Signals
Frequency-based Generation of Time Signals
Response of Mechanical Systems
General Description of Mechanical Systems
Multibody Models
Finite Element Models
Multibody Simulation (MBS) for Durability Applications or: from System Loads to Component Loads
An Illustrative Example
Some General Modelling Aspects
Flexible Bodies in Multibody Simulation
Simulating the Suspension Model
Finite Element Models (FEM) for Durability Applications or: from Component Loads to Local Stress-strain Histories
Linear Static Load Cases and Quasi-static Superposition
Linear Dynamic Problems and Modal Superposition
From the Displacement Solution to Local Stresses and Strains
Summary of Local Stress-strain History Calculation
Invariant System Loads
Digital Road and Tyre Models
Back Calculation of Invariant Substitute Loads
An Example
Models for Random Loads
Basics on Random Processes
Some Average Properties of Random Processes*
Statistical Approach to Estimate Load Severity
The Extrapolation Method
Fitting Range-pairs Distribution
Semi-parametric Approach
The Monte Carlo Method
Expected Damage for Gaussian Loads
Stationary Gaussian Loads
Non-stationary Gaussian Loads with Constant Mean*
Non-Gaussian Loads: the Role of Upcrossing Intensity
Bendat's Narrow Band Approximation
Generalization of Bendat's Approach*
Laplace Processes
The Coefficient of Variation for Damage
Splitting the Measured Signal into Parts
Short Signals
Gaussian Loads
Compound Poisson Processes: Roads with Pot Holes
Markov Loads
Markov Chains*
Discrete Markov Loads - Definition
Markov Chains of Turning Points
Switching Markov Chain Loads
Approximation of Expected Damage for Gaussian Loads
Intensity of Interval Upcrossings for Markov Loads*
Load Variation and Reliability
Modelling of Variability in Loads
The Sources of Load Variability: Statistical Populations
Controlled or Uncontrolled Variation
Model Errors
Reliability Assessment
The Statistical Model Complexity
The Physical Model Complexity
The Full Probabilistic Model
Monte Carlo Simulations
Accuracy of the Full Probabilistic Approach
The First-Moment Method
The Second-Moment Method
The Gauss Approximation Formula
The Fatigue Load-Strength Model
The Fatigue Load and Strength Variables
Reliability Indices
The Equivalent Load and Strength Variables
Determining Uncertainty Measures
The Uncertainty due to the Estimated Damage Exponent
The Uncertainty Measure of Strength
The Uncertainty Measure of Load
Use of the Reliability Index
Including an Extra Safety Factor
Reducing Uncertainties
Load Analysis in View of the Vehicle Design Process
Evaluation of Customer Loads
Survey Sampling
Why Use Random Samples?
Simple Random Sample
Stratified Random Sample
Cluster Sample
Sampling with Unequal Probabilities
An Application
Simple Random Sampling in More Detail
Load Measurement Uncertainty
Precision in Load Severity
Pair-wise Analysis of Load Severity
Joint Analysis of Load Severity
Random Sampling of Customers
Customer Survey
Characterization of a Market
Simplified Model for a New Market
Comparison of Markets
Customer Usage and Load Environment
Model for Customer Usage
Load Environment Uncertainty
Vehicle-Independent Load Descriptions
Discussion and Summary
Derivation of Design Loads
Scalar Load Representations
Other Load Representations
Statistical Aspects
Structure of the Chapter
From Customer Usage Profiles to Design Targets
Customer Load Distribution and Design Load
Strength Distribution and Strength Requirement
Defining the Reliability Target
Partial Safety Factor for Load-Strength Modelling
Safety Factors for Design Loads
Summary and Remarks
Synthetic Load Models
Random Load Descriptions
Models for External Load Environment
Load Descriptions in Design
Load Description for Testing
Applying Reconstruction Methods
Rainflow Reconstruction
ID and Markov Reconstruction
Spectral Reconstruction
Multi-input Loads
Standardized Load Spectra
Proving Ground Loads
Optimized Combination of Test Track Events
Optimizing with Respect to Damage per Channel
An Instructive Example
Hints and Practical Aspects
Discussion and Summary
Verification of Systems and Components
Principles of Verification
Test for Continuous Improvements vs. Tests for Release
Specific Problems in Verification of Durability
Characterizing or Verification Tests
Verification on Different Levels
Physical vs. Numerical Evaluation
Generating Loads for Testing
Reliability Targets and Verification Loads
Generation of Time Signals based on Load Specifications
Acceleration of Tests
Planning and Evaluation of Tests
Choice of Strength Distribution and Variance
Parameter Estimation and Censored Data
Verification of Safety Factors
Statistical Tests for Quantiles
Discussion and Summary
Fatigue Models and Life Prediction
Short, Long or Infinite Life
Low Cycle Fatigue
High Cycle Fatigue
Fatigue Limit
Cumulative Fatigue
Arguments for the Palmgren-Miner Rule
When is the Palmgren-Miner Rule Useful?
Statistics and Probability
Further Reading
Some Common Distributions
Normal Distribution
Log-Normal Distribution
Weibull Distribution
Rayleigh Distribution
Exponential Distribution
Generalized Pareto Distribution
Extreme Value Distributions
Peak over Threshold Analysis
Fourier Analysis
Fourier Transformation
Fourier Series
Sampling and the Nyquist-Shannon Theorem
DFT/FFT (Discrete Fourier Transformation)
Finite Element Analysis
Kinematics of Flexible Bodies
Equations of Equilibrium
Linear Elastic Material Behaviour
Some Basics on Discretization Methods
Dynamic Equations
Multibody System Simulation
Linear Models
Mathematical Description of Multibody Systems
The Equations of Motion
Computational Issues
Software for Load Analysis
Some Dedicated Software Packages
Some Software Packages for Fatigue Analysis
WAFO - a Toolbox for Matlab