Jacob Burckhardt was born on September 10, 1891, in Basel, Switzerland. He attended the universities of Basel, Munich, Goettingen, Zurich, and Paris. A diplomat, professor, and writer, his best-known literary work was a biography of Richelieu. Burckhardt also wrote The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, The Age of Constantine the Great, Judgments on History and Historians, and The Greeks and Greek Civilization. Burckhardt's Force and Freedom was recently published under the title Reflections on History. Burckhardt's career included serving as a diplomat between Poland and Germany prior to World War II. He was the high commissioner of the Free City of Danzig for the League of Nations. Burckhardt met with Adolf Hitler in 1939 about the surrender of Danzig to Germany. Although he was praised for his efforts, Burckhardt was unable to reconcile the situation, which eventually led Europe into World War II. Burckhardt died in 1897.