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Spotlight Synthetic Aperture Radar Signal Processing Algorithms

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ISBN-10: 0890067287

ISBN-13: 9780890067284

Edition: 1995

Authors: Walter C. Carrara, Ron S. Goodman, Ronald M. Majewski

List price: $199.00
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Book details

List price: $199.00
Copyright year: 1995
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 554
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.2
Language: English

Preface
Introduction
Synthetic Aperture Radar
SAR Modes
Spotlight Mode Attributes
Early SAR Development
Spotlight Mode and Polar Format
The Move to Digital Processing
Spotlight SAR Today
References
Synthetic Aperture Radar Fundamentals
SAR System Overview
System Operation
SAR Sensor
Motion Sensor
Image Formation Processor
Image Processor
Image Exploitation Segment
Imaging Considerations
Pulse Compression and Range Resolution
Short Pulse
Linear FM Waveform
Stepped-Frequency Waveform
Synthetic Aperture Concept and Azimuth Resolution
Real Beam Radar and SAR
Synthetic Aperture Interval
Beam Compression Ratio
Azimuth Chirp Rate and Doppler Bandwidth of Received Signal
Spotlight Scene Bandwidth after Azimuth Dechirp
SAR Coherence Requirements
Propagation Effects on Phase Coherence
Source Coherence in SAR
Motion Effects on Phase Coherence
Signal Phase Equation
Spotlight Data Collection Geometry
Transmitted Signal--Linear FM Chirp
Received Signal
Demodulated Signal
Sampled Signal
Fine Motion Compensation
Components of Signal Phase Equation
Inverse SAR
ISAR Geometry
ISAR Analytical Model
SAR Sensor Parametric Design Example
Summary
References
Spotlight SAR and Polar Format Algorithm
Scope of Processing Task
Signal Processing Requirements
Challenges in Spotlight Data Processing
Review of Image Formation Algorithms
Algorithm Survey
Limitation of Rectangular Format
Polar Format Algorithm
Algorithm Overview
Signal History Model
Polar Format Transformation
Focus Target Plane Concept
Selection of Image Display Plane
SAR Imaging Geometry
Geometry Models
Relative Motion
Differential Range
Approximation for Differential Range
Taylor Series Expansion Procedure
Taylor Series Coefficients
Calculation Procedures
Basic Imaging Terms in the Signal Equation
Phase of Image Pixels
Basic Imaging Relationship
Range Curvature
Nonplanar Motion and Three-Dimensional Scene
Motion Measurement Errors
Scene Center Displacements
Geometric Distortion
Quadratic Phase Error
Residual Video Phase
Additional Error Sources
Relationship Between Target and Image Coordinates
Individual Contributors
Correction for Range Curvature Image Distortion
Image Focus Error Summary
Summary
References
Digital Polar Format Processing
Sampling Rate Conversion
Upsampling
Downsampling
Resampling
Polyphase Filters
A Resampling Example
Use of Polyphase Filters
Filtering Mechanics
Digital Polar Format Relationships
Digital Polar Interpolation
Range Interpolation
Azimuth Interpolation
Image Scale Factors
Signal History Projections
Collection Surface to Focus Target Plane
Focus Target Plane to Image Display Plane
Stabilized Scene Polar Interpolation
Example with Line-of-Sight Polar Interpolation
Example with Stabilized Scene Polar Interpolation
Considerations in Stabilized Scene Polar Interpolation
Subpatch Processing
Summary
References
Phase Errors
Classification of Phase Errors
Low-Frequency Phase Errors
High-Frequency Phase Errors
Management of Phase Errors
Magnitude of Phase Errors
Errors in Position and Motion Measurement
Range Curvature
Residual Video Phase
Nonplanar Motion
Other Error Sources
Requirements on a Practical SAR Motion Sensor
Moving Target Effects
Summary
References
Autofocus Techniques
Mapdrift
Overview
Analytical Development
Implementation
Multiple Aperture Mapdrift
Overview
Analytical Development
Implementation
Phase Difference
Overview
Analytical Development
Implementation
Phase Gradient Autofocus
Overview
Analytical Development
Implementation
Prominent Point Processing
Single Prominent Point Processing Algorithm
Multiple PPP Algorithm
Selection of Prominent Points
Space-Variant Refocus
Summary
References
Processor Design Examples
The Common Unix SAR Processor
DCS System Overview
Processor Overview
Signal Processor Software Architecture
The Ground-to-Air Imaging Radar Processor
GAIR System Overview
Processor Overview
Preprocessing Segment
Interactive Segment
Image Formation Segment
Image Exploitation Segment
Summary
References
SAR System Performance
Image Quality Metrics
System Performance Budget
Requirements Relating to System Impulse Response
Resolution
Peak Sidelobes
Integrated Sidelobe Ratio
Requirements on System Noise
Multiplicative Noise
Additive Noise
Contrast Ratio
Geometric Distortion
Secondary Image Quality Metrics
Test Sites for Image Quality Verification
Elements of the Test Site
Measurement of System Noise Parameters
Example Test Site
Summary
References
Spotlight Processing Applications
Spotlight Processing of Stripmap SAR Data
Mode Differences
Stripmap-to-Spotlight Conversion Process
Image Example
Forward-Look SAR
Geometry Model
Image Attributes
Image Examples
Interferometric SAR
Nature of SAR Interferometry
Interferometry Model
Processing Requirements
Height Measurement Error
Absolute Height Information
Orthorectification
Image Examples
Other Approaches to Height Measurement
Vibrating Target Detection
Data Collection Model
Effect of Vibration
Smearing of Paired Echoes
Phase Adjustment to Focus Paired Echoes
Vibration Detection Process
Simulated Examples with Vibrating Targets
Summary
References
Range Migration Algorithm
Signal Model
Algorithm Overview
Along-Track Fourier Transform
Matched Filtering
Stolt Interpolation
Two-Dimensional Inverse Fourier Transform
Analytical Development
Principle of Stationary Phase
Along-Track Fourier Transform Analysis
Matched Filtering Analysis
Stolt Interpolation Analysis
Aspects of Range Migration Processing
Along-Track Sampling Requirements
Processing Squinted Data
Space-Variant Impulse Response
Approximation for Stolt Interpolation
Relation between Range Migration and Polar Format Algorithms
Applications of Range Migration Processing
L-Band SAR
Ultra-Wideband SAR for Fopen
Summary
References
Chirp Scaling Algorithm
Signal Model Without Dechirp-on-Receive
Algorithm Overview
Azimuth Fourier Transform
Chirp Scaling Operation
Range Compression
Two-Dimensional Phase Compensation
Azimuth Inverse Fourier Transform
Analytical Development
Azimuth Fourier Transform
Chirp Scaling Operation
Range Fourier Transform
Two-Dimensional Matched Filtering
Range Inverse Fourier Transform
Two-Dimensional Phase Compensation
Azimuth Inverse Fourier Transform
Algorithm Limitations
Algorithm Applications
Summary
References
Comparison of Image Formation Algorithms
Image Formation Algorithm Models
Polar Format Algorithm
Range Migration Algorithm
Chirp Scaling Algorithm
Computational Complexity
Additional Aspects of Algorithm Performance
Polar Format Algorithm
Range Migration Algorithm
Chirp Scaling Algorithm
Summary
References
Fast Algorithm for Digital Quadrature Demodulation
References
Tomographic Processing of Spotlight Data
Tomographic Reconstruction
Algorithm Attributes
References
Removal of Residual Video Phase
Presence of RVP
Compensation with a Frequency-Dependent Delay
Utility of RVP Compensation
Sidelobe Control in SAR Imagery
Finite Apertures
Common Weighting Functions
Spatially Variant Apodization
Summary
References
Description of SAR Images
Data Collection System
Ground-to-Air Imaging Radar
Rotating Platform Facility
P-3/SAR System
Simulated Images
References
Acronyms
Symbols
Index