Critique of Pure Reason

ISBN-10: 0872204480

ISBN-13: 9780872204485

Edition: 1999 (Abridged)

Authors: Immanuel Kant, Werner S. Pluhar, Eric Watkins

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Eric Watkin's abridgement of Werner Pluhar's masterful translation makes an ideal introduction to Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Key selections include the Preface in B, the introduction, the Transcendental Aesthetic, the Second Analogy, the Refutation of Idealism, the first three Antinomies, the Transcendental Deduction in B, and the Canin of Pure Reason. A concise introduction provides biographical information and describes the nature of Kant's projects and the contribution of each major section of the Critique to it.
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Book details

List price: $17.00
Copyright year: 1999
Publisher: Hackett Publishing Company, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/1/1999
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 240
Size: 5.75" wide x 8.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.638
Language: English

The greatest of all modern philosophers was born in the Baltic seaport of Konigsberg, East Prussia, the son of a saddler and never left the vicinity of his remote birthplace. Through his family pastor, Immanuel Kant received the opportunity to study at the newly founded Collegium Fredericianum, proceeding to the University of Konigsberg, where he was introduced to Wolffian philosophy and modern natural science by the philosopher Martin Knutzen. From 1746 to 1755, he served as tutor in various households near Konigsberg. Between 1755 and 1770, Kant published treatises on a number of scientific and philosophical subjects, including one in which he originated the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system. Some of Kant's writings in the early 1760s attracted the favorable notice of respected philosophers such as J. H. Lambert and Moses Mendelssohn, but a professorship eluded Kant until he was over 45. In 1781 Kant finally published his great work, the Critique of Pure Reason. The early reviews were hostile and uncomprehending, and Kant's attempt to make his theories more accessible in his Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783) was largely unsuccessful. Then, partly through the influence of former student J. G. Herder, whose writings on anthropology and history challenged his Enlightenment convictions, Kant turned his attention to issues in the philosophy of morality and history, writing several short essays on the philosophy of history and sketching his ethical theory in the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785). Kant's new philosophical approach began to receive attention in 1786 through a series of articles in a widely circulated Gottingen journal by the Jena philosopher K. L. Reinhold. The following year Kant published a new, extensively revised edition of the Critique, following it up with the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), treating the foundations of moral philosophy, and the Critique of Judgment (1790), an examination of aesthetics rounding out his system through a strikingly original treatment of two topics that were widely perceived as high on the philosophical agenda at the time - the philosophical meaning of the taste for beauty and the use of teleology in natural science. From the early 1790s onward, Kant was regarded by the coming generation of philosophers as having overthrown all previous systems and as having opened up a whole new philosophical vista. During the last decade of his philosophical activity, Kant devoted most of his attention to applications of moral philosophy. His two chief works in the 1790s were Religion Within the Bounds of Plain Reason (1793--94) and Metaphysics of Morals (1798), the first part of which contained Kant's theory of right, law, and the political state. At the age of 74, most philosophers who are still active are engaged in consolidating and defending views they have already worked out. Kant, however, had perceived an important gap in his system and had begun rethinking its foundations. These attempts went on for four more years until the ravages of old age finally destroyed Kant's capacity for further intellectual work. The result was a lengthy but disorganized manuscript that was first published in 1920 under the title Opus Postumum. It displays the impact of some of the more radical young thinkers Kant's philosophy itself had inspired. Kant's philosophy focuses attention on the active role of human reason in the process of knowing the world and on its autonomy in giving moral law. Kant saw the development of reason as a collective possession of the human species, a product of nature working through human history. For him the process of free communication between independent minds is the very life of reason, the vocation of which is to remake politics, religion, science, art, and morality as the completion of a destiny whose shape it is our collective task to frame for ourselves.

Werner S. Pluhar is Affiliate Professor of Philosophy, Pennsylvania State University, Fayette.

Eric Watkins is professor of philosophy at the University of California, San Diego. The recipient of grants from the Fulbright Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, he is the author of Kant and the Metaphysics of Causality, which won the Book Prize in 2005 from the Journal of the History of Philosophy.

Selected Bibliography
Translator's Preface
Critique of Pure Reason
Preface [First Edition]
Preface [Second Edition]
Introduction [Second Edition]
On the Distinction between Pure and Empirical Cognition
On the Distinction between Analytic and Synthetic Judgments
All Theoretical Sciences of Reason Contain Synthetic A Priori Judgments as Principles
The General Problem of Pure Reason
Idea and Division of a Special Science under the Name of Critique of Pure Reason
Transcendental Doctrine of Elements
Transcendental Aesthetic 1
Metaphysical Exposition of This Concept
Transcendental Exposition of the Concept of Space
Conclusions from the Above Concepts
Metaphysical Exposition of the Concept of Time
Transcendental Exposition of the Concept of Time
Conclusions from these Concepts
Transcendental Logic
Introduction: Idea of a Transcendental Logic
On Logic As Such
Division I Transcendental Analytic
Analytic of Concepts
On the Guide for the Discovery of All Pure Concepts of Understanding
Transcendental Guide for the Discovery of All Pure Concepts of Understanding
On the Understanding's Logical Use As Such
On the Understanding's Logical Function in Judgments
On the Pure Concepts of Understanding, or Categories
On the Deduction of the Pure Concepts of Understanding
On the Principles of a Transcendental Deduction As Such
Transition to the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories
[Second Edition] Transcendental Deduction of the Pure Concepts of Understanding
On the Possibility of a Combination As Such
On the Original Synthetic Unity of Apperception
The Principle of the Synthetic Unity of Apperception Is the Supreme Principle for All Use of the Understanding
What Objective Unity of Self-Consciousness Is
The Logical Form of All Judgments Consists in the Objective Unity of Apperception of the Concepts Contained in Them
All Sensible Intuitions Are Subject to the Categories, Which Are Conditions under Which Alone Their Manifold Can Come Together in One Consciousness
A Category Cannot Be Used for Cognizing Things Except When It Is Applied to Objects of Experience
On Applying the Categories to Objects of the Senses As Such
Transcendental Deduction of the Universally Possible Use in Experience of the Pure Concepts of Understanding
Result of This Deduction of the Concepts of Understanding
Brief Sketch of This Deduction
Analytic of Principles
On the Schematism of the Pure Concepts of Understanding
System of All Principles of Pure Understanding
On the Supreme Principle of All Synthetic Judgments
Systematic Presentation of All the Synthetic Principles of Pure Understanding
Axioms of Intuition
Anticipations of Perception
Analogies of Experience
First Analogy: Principle of the Permanence of Substance
Second Analogy: Principle of Temporal Succession According to the Law of Causality
Third Analogy: Principle of Simultaneity According to the Law of Interaction or Community
Refutation of Idealism [Second Edition]
Transcendental Dialectic
On Transcendental Illusion
On Pure Reason As the Seat of Transcendental Illusion
On the Pure Use of Reason
On the Dialectical Inferences of Pure Reason
On the Paralogisms of Pure Reason [Second Edition]
The Antinomy of Pure Reason
System of Cosmological Ideas
Antithetic of Pure Reason
First Conflict of Transcendental Ideas
Second Conflict of Transcendental Ideas
Third Conflict of Transcendental Ideas
Critical Decision of the Cosmological Dispute That Reason Has with Itself
Pure Reason's Regulative Principle Regarding the Cosmological Ideas
On the Empirical Use of the Regulative Principle of Reason in Regard to All Cosmological Ideas
Solution of the Cosmological Idea of the Totality of Composition of Appearances of a World Whole
Solution of the Cosmological Idea of the Totality of Division of a Whole Given in Intuition
Solution of the Cosmological Idea of Totality in the Derivation of World Events from Their Causes
The Ideal of Pure Reason
On the Impossibility of an Ontological Proof of the Existence of God
Appendix to the Transcendental Dialectic
On the Final Aim of the Natural Dialectic of Human Reason
Transcendental Doctrine of Method
The Canon of Pure Reason
On the Ultimate Purpose of the Pure Use of Our Reason
On the Ideal of the Highest Good, As a Determining Basis of the Ultimate Purpose of Pure Reason
On Opinion, Knowledge, and Faith
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