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Forensic Art and Illustration

ISBN-10: 0849381185

ISBN-13: 9780849381188

Edition: 2000

Authors: Karen T. Taylor

List price: $175.00
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Description:

Forensic illustration encompasses the efforts of police artists to create recognizable images of human beings from postmortem and skeletal remains and impressions of witnesses and victims. It has become increasingly important as a tool in identifying both perpetrators and victims. Forensic Art and Illustration is the first book to provide practical guidance and complete coverage of all aspects of the field, and includes much previously unavailable information.Marketing Class Code: 1U34
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Book details

List price: $175.00
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 9/15/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 608
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 2.750
Language: English

Forensic Art: The Foundation
Introduction to Forensic Art and Illustration
What Is Forensic Art?
Four Categories of Forensic Art
Art or Science?
Who Is the Forensic Artist?
References
A History of Forensic Art
More Than 100 Years of Aid to Law Enforcement
The 1800s
The Early 1900s
The 1930s
The 1940s
The 1950s
The 1960s
The 1970s
The 1980s
The 1990s
2000 and Beyond
References
The Human Face
Facial Anatomy
Bones of the Skull
Muscles of the Face
Three Types of Heads
Anatomy of the Facial Features
Basic Orientation Terms
The Dentition
Racial/Ancestral Groups and Ethnicity
Caucasoid
Negroid
Mongoloid
Australian Aboriginals
Male and Female
Male
Female
Facial Expressions
References
Drawing the Human Face
Tools and Materials
Papers
Drawing and Blending Tools
Other Tools and Supplies
Tools for Enlargement, Reduction, and Projection
Enlargement and Reduction
Projectors
Tools for Copying with No Size Change
Light Boxes
Transfer Paper
"Style" in Forensic Art
Degree of Facial Detail
Scale of the Facial Drawing
How Long Should It Take?
Whether or Not to "Neck"!
The Ideal Face
Drawing Style
Color vs. Black-and-White Drawing
Lighting to Attain Perspective
Contrived Lighting
Light Basics
Facial Proportions
Proportion in Forensic Art
Canons of Proportion
Symmetry/Asymmetry
Use of Templates
Importance of the Midface Proportions
Younger and Older Proportions
Male and Female Proportions
Temporary Proportional Changes
Long-Term Proportional Changes
How to Capture Proportions in Your Drawings
Individual Facial Features
The Eyes
The Nose
The Mouth
The Ears
Scars, Marks, Tattoos, or Anomalies
The Profile
Hair and Other Textures
Hair
Facial Hair
Textures
Accessories
Hats and Headgear
Glasses
Other Details
Improving Your Drawing Skills
Gesture Drawing
Contour Drawing
Experiment with Styles and Materials
References
Forensic Art: Finding and Identifying the Living
The Interview
Functions of Memory and Trauma
What Is Memory?
How Does Memory Work?
Stages of Memory
Memory and the Composite Artist
All Faces Are Not Created Equal
All Witnesses Are Not Created Equal
Holistic Encoding
Importance of Specific Features
Importance of the Upper Face
Recall vs. Recognition
What about Hypnosis?
Obstacles to Perception and Memory
The Victim/Witness
Involvement in the Crime
Stress, Arousal, and Violence
Personal Fluency of Description
Perceived Credibility of Members of Certain Professions
Individual Witness Factors
The Cognitive Interview vs. the Standard Police Interview
The Standard Police Interview: "Just the facts, ma'am"
The Cognitive Interview
Primary Techniques of the Cognitive Interview
Review of the Stages of the Cognitive Interview
The Composite-Specific Interview
Pre-Interview
Introduction/Rapport-Building Stage
Initial Drawing Stage
Fine-Tuning Drawing Stage
Finishing Touches
Concluding the Interview
Multiple Witness Interviews
Pre-Interview Assessment
Procedural Considerations
Child Interviews
General Guidelines for Supportive Interviewing of Children
Developmental Stages as Related to Interviewing
Language Adaptation
Procedural Considerations
Hospital Interviews
Purpose before Emotion
Permission from the Physician
Victim's Attitude
Procedural Considerations
False Allegations
Reasons for False Allegations
Indicators
Procedural Considerations
Other Tools for Assessing Deception
The Artist's Role
Other Psychological Issues
Unconscious Transference
Multiple Retrieval Attempts
Better Visualizers May Make Better Witnesses
Post-Event Inputs
Training in Facial Recognition
Psychological Benefits of Composite Images
References
Composite Imagery
Overview of Composite Imagery
What Is a Composite?
Object or Evidence Images
Facial Composite Images in General
Hand-Assembled Composite Systems
Computer-Generated Composite Systems
Three-Dimensional Composites
Other Terminology
Circumstances for Doing Composite Images
Initial Contact and Request
Saying "No"
Practical Considerations
Physical Structure of the Interview
Time of the Interview
Victim Considerations
Put Yourself in the Interviewee's Situation
Physical Considerations
Emotional Considerations
Others Allowed into the Interview
Psychological Considerations
Physiological Indicators of Stress
Sociological Considerations
Individual Victim/Witness Variants
Reference Files
Why Use Reference Photographs?
Recall vs. Recognition
Correct Use of Photographic References
FBI Facial Identification Catalog
Mug Shots
Other Reference Sources
Useful Objects to Have on Hand
Other Uses for the Photo Reference Files
The Composite Drawing
Time Frame for Drawing
Procedure for Composite Drawing
Initial Drawing Stage: Establishing the Face
Fine-Tuning Drawing Stage: Refinement of the Face
Finishing Touches
Alternate Looks
Use of a 1 to 10 Evaluation System
Distribution of Composite Images
References
Age Progression: Growth
Overview of Child Age Progression
Circumstances for Doing Child Age Progression
Parental Abduction
Stranger Abduction
Procedural Considerations
General Approach
Hand-Drawn or Computer-Generated Methods
A "Look" throughout Life
Information Gathering
Craniofacial Growth
General Trends
Denition
Photographic Series
Child Facial Update: Case Example
References
Age Progression: Aging
Overview of Adult Age Progression
Circumstances for Doing Adult Age Progression
Procedural Considerations
Hand-Drawn or Computer-Generated Methods
A "Look" throughout Life
Facial Angle
Color or Black and White
Information Gathering
Materials
Multiple Views
Facial Aging
Nomenclature for Facial Lines
Changes by Decade
General Facial Aging
Fugitives and Adult Facial Update Examples
Case Studies
Complications
References
Image Assessment and Modification
The Forensic Artist as a "Facial Identification Specialist"
What Approach Should Be Used?
Photo-to-Photo Comparisons
Photos
Considerations for Evaluation and Comparison
Special Techniques for Comparison
Scaling Techniques
Making Comparison Photographs
Facial Changes Other Than Age
Intentional Alteration of Appearance
Naturally Occurring Changes in Appearance
References
Forensic Art: Identifying the Dead
Postmortem Drawing
Circumstances for Doing Postmortem Drawing
Cases in Which Postmortem Drawing Is Used
Cases in Which Postmortem Drawing Is Generally Not Used
When to Say "No"
Postmortem Changes
Basic Terminology
Postmortem Stages
Rigor Mortis
Livor Mortis
Algor Mortis
Decomposition
Insects and Animals
Effects on the Face
Reanimating the Face
Bloating
Slack Jaw
Palpebral Changes
Facial Trauma
Slight
Moderate
Extensive
Procedural Considerations
Quality of Photography
Facial Angle
The Dentition
Color or Black and White
Using Other Available Details
Complications
References
Skull Protection and Preparation for Reconstruction
The Skull as Evidence
Skull Protection
Gluing the Mandible to the Cranium
General Dental Assessment
Correct Positioning
Incomplete Skulls
Anthropological and Other Scientific Evaluations
Anatomical Method or Tissue Depth Method
Anatomical Method
Tissue Depth Method
Combination Method
Discussion of Methods
Frankfort Horizontal Plane
Tissue Depths
Tissue Depth Tables
Landmarks for Location of Tissue Depth Markers
Cutting and Placement of Tissue Depth Markers
References
Two-Dimensional Facial Reconstruction from the Skull
Background of the Method
The Skull
Historical Review of Two-Dimensional Facial Reconstruction
Circumstances for Doing Two-Dimensional Facial Reconstruction
Tools and Materials
Technical Phase
Tissue Depth Markers
The Frankfort Horizontal Plane for Skull Photography
Drawing Board Setup
Artistic Phase
Drawing the Facial Contours
Drawing the Eyes
Drawing the Eyebrows
Drawing the Nose
Drawing the Mouth
Drawing the Ears
Drawing the Hair
Drawing the Neck
Other Details
Copying for Distribution
Case Examples
References
Three-Dimensional Facial Reconstruction on the Skull
Background of the Method (by BPG)
Circumstances for Doing Three-Dimensional Facial Reconstruction
Tools and Materials
Technical Phase
Adjustable Skull Stand
The Frankfort Horizontal Plane
Tissue Depth Markers
Setting the Prosthetic Eye
Connecting Tissue Depth Markers
Artistic Phase
Development of the Mouth
Development of the Eyes
Development of the Nose
Development of the Cheeks
Development of the Ears
The Neck
Texturing and Finishing Details
Method of Photographing the Sculpture
Case Examples
Early Cases
Other Case Examples
Museum and Other Applications
Mummies
King Tutankhamen
Anniston, Alabama Museum Project
Early Americans
Galveston Island Aboriginal Female
Leanderthal Lady
Soldiers from the Custer Battlefield
Miles O'Hara--Little Big Horn
Sgt. Edward Batzer--Little Big Horn
Other Projects
Pizarro Project
Colonial Williamsburg Project
President Kennedy Assassination Project
Special Project for the FBI
References
Methods of Superimposition
Background of Superimposition Comparisons
Procedural Considerations
Orientation
Scale
A Model of Video Superimposition
Protocol for Developing Superimposition Videotapes
Methodology for Analysis of Superimposition Videotapes
Additional Issues
Difficult Orientations
Incomplete Skulls
Ambiguous Indicators of Ancestry or Sex
Multiple Views
Case Studies
Exclusionary Case Study
Matching Case Study
Discussion
References
Forensic Art: Additional Responsibilities
Professional Ethics and Conduct
Codes of Ethics and Conduct
Representation of Credentials and Capabilities
Professional Organizations
Certification
Education and Experience
Statement of Capabilities
Dealings with Other Artists
Redoing Composite Drawings
Redoing Other Types of Forensic Art
Conduct with Victims and Witnesses
Witnesses
Victims
Family Members
Questionable Witnesses
Conduct with Police
Release of Information
Questionable Methods
Insufficient Information
Frontal View vs. Profile
Inappropriate Requests
Forensic Art Language
References
Printing and Graphics Reproduction
General Information
History of Printing
Typography
Images
Photography
Digital Imaging
Acquiring and Printing Images
Evidentiary Documentation
Methods of Distribution
Print Media
Billboards
Television
Electronic
Primary Considerations for the Artist
Contrast
Definition of Form
References
Dealing with the News Media
General Information
The Role of the News Media
The Role of Law Enforcement
The Artist's Role
Releasing Forensic Art to the News Media
Making Comments to the News Media
Personal Stories
Practical Matters
References
The Forensic Artist in Court
Record Keeping
Case Records
Evidence Handling
The Composite Drawing as Evidence
Other Types of Evidence
Expert Testimony
Definitions
Preparation for Testimony
Courtroom Demeanor
Primary Issues for the Forensic Artist
Court Presentation Artwork
Forensic Art Case Law
Hearsay Rule Exceptions
Standards for Admitting a Composite
Quality and Availability of the Original Composite
Multiple Witnesses
Other Related Case Law
Probable Cause to Stop and Identify
To Aid the Defendant
Right of the Accused to the Production of a Composite Drawing
Hypnosis
References
Summary
Index