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Power Distribution Planning Reference Book

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ISBN-10: 0824748751

ISBN-13: 9780824748753

Edition: 2nd 2004 (Revised)

Authors: H. Lee Willis

List price: $479.00
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Covering every significant aspect of system planning including load forecasting, scheduling, performance, and economics, this is a useful resource for use in the selection, development, and provision of safe, high-quality, and cost-effective electric utility distribution systems.
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Book details

List price: $479.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Publication date: 3/1/2004
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 1244
Size: 7.25" wide x 10.00" long x 2.50" tall
Weight: 5.038
Language: English

Series Introduction
Power Delivery Systems
T&D System's Mission
Reliability of Power Delivery
The "Natural Laws of T&D"
Levels of the T&D System
Utility Distribution Equipment
T&D Costs
Types of Distribution System Design
The Systems Approach and Two-Q Planning
Summary of Key Points
References and Bibliography
Consumer Demand and Electric Load
The Two Qs: Quantity and Quality of Power
Quantity of Power Demand: Electric Load
Electric Consumer Demand for Quality of Power
The Market Comb and Consumer Values
Two-Q Analysis: Quantity and Quality Versus Cost
Conclusion and Summary
Electric Load, Coincidence, and Behavior
Peak Load, Diversity, and Load Curve Behavior
Measuring and Modeling Load Curves
Power System Reliability
Outages Cause Interruptions
Reliability Indices
Comparison of Reliability Indices Among Utilities
Benchmarking Reliability
Conclusion and Summary
References and Further Reading
Economics and Evaluation of Cost
Time Value of Money
Variability of Costs
Evaluation, Prioritization, and Approval
Decisions and Commitments
Evaluation, Comparison, Prioritization, and Approval
Traditional Regulated Utility Least-Cost Planning
The Benefit/Cost Ratio Paradigm
Incremental Benefit/Cost Evaluation
Profit-Based Planning Paradigms
Summary, Comments, and Conclusion
References and Bibliography
Equipment Ratings, Loadings, Lifetime, and Failure
Capacity Ratings and Lifetime
Aging, Deterioration, and Damage
Measures to Improve Equipment Reliability and Life
Conclusion and Summary
For Further Reading
Equipment Failures and System Performance
Equipment Failure Rate Increases with Age
A Look at Failure and Age in a Utility System
Conclusion and Summary
Load Reach and Volt-VAR Engineering
Voltage Behavior on a Distribution System
Load Reach and Distribution Capability
Load Reach, the Systems Approach, and Current and Voltage Performance Optimization
Managing Voltage Drop on Distribution Systems
Volt-VAR Control and Correction
Summary of Key Points
Distributed Resources
Managing Two-Q Demand on the Consumer Side
Energy and Demand Management Methods
Conservation Voltage Reduction
Distributed Generation
Electric Energy Storage Systems
Distributed Resource Cost Evaluation
Basic Line Segment and Transformer Sizing Economics
Distribution Lines
Basic Equipment Selection Economics
References and Bibliography
Choosing the Right Set of Line and Equipment Sizes
Using Economic Loading and Voltage Drop Well
Economy and Performance of a Conductor Set
Conductor Set Design: Fundamental Aspects
Recommended Method for Conductor Set Design
Standard Transformer Sets
References and Bibliography
Distribution Feeder Layout
The Feeder System
Radial and Loop Feeder Layout
Dual-Voltage Feeders
Summary of Key Points
Feeder Layout, Switching, and Reliability
Designing Reliability into the Primary Feeder (MV) Level
Feeder System Strength
Contingency-Based Versus Reliability-Based Planning
Contingency Support and Switching Design
Protection and Sectionalization of the Feeder System
Summary of Key Points
References and Bibliography
Multi-Feeder Layout
How Many Feeders in a Substation Service Area?
Planning the Feeder System
Planning for Load Growth
Formulae for Estimating Feeder System Cost
Conclusion and Summary
Distribution Substations
High-Side Substation Equipment and Layout
Transformer Portion of a Substation
Low-Side Portion of a Substation
The Substation Site
Substation Costs, Capacity, and Reliability
Substation Standardization
Substation Planning and the Concept of "Transformer Units"
Conclusion and Summary
References and Bibliography
Distribution System Layout
The T&D System in Its Entirety
Design Interrelationships
Example of a System Dominated by Voltage Drop, Not Capacity
Conclusion and Summary
References and Bibliography
Substation Siting and System Expansion Planning
Substation Location, Capacity, and Service Area
Substation Siting and Sizing Economics
Substation-Level Planning: The Art
Guidelines to Achieve Low Cost in Substation Siting and Sizing
Substation-Level Planning: The Science
Planning with Modular Substations
Summary: The Most Important Point About Substation-Level Planning
References and Bibliography
Service Level Layout and Planning
The Service Level
Types of Service Level Layout
Load Dynamics, Coincidence, and Their Interaction with the Service Level
Service-Level Planning and Layout
High Reliability Service-Level Systems
Planning Goals and Criteria
Voltage and Customer Service Criteria and Guidelines
Other Distribution Design and Operating Guidelines
Load Ratings and Loading Guidelines
Equipment and Design Criteria
Summary of Key Points
References and Bibliography
Reliability-Related Criteria and Their Use
Reliability Metrics, Targets, and Criteria
Practical Issues of Reliability-Based Criteria
Approaches and Criteria for Targeted Reliability Planning
Summary of Key Points
References and Bibliography
Distribution Circuit Electrical Analysis
Models, Algorithms, and Computer Programs
Circuit Models
Models of Electric Load
Types of Electrical Behavior System Models
Coincidence and Load Flow Interaction
Conclusion and Summary
References and Bibliography
Distribution System Reliability Analysis Methods
Contingency-Based Planning Methods
Engineering Reliability Directly
Analytical Distribution System Reliability Assessment
Important Aspects of Reliability Assessment
Reliability Simulation Studies and Financial Risk Assessment
Conclusion and Key Points
References and Bibliography
Automated Planning Tools and Methods
Fast Ways to Find Good Alternatives
Automated Feeder Planning Methods
Substation-Level and Strategic Planning Tools
Application of Planning Tools
Conclusion and Summary
References and Bibliography
T&D Load Forecasting Methods
Spatial Load Forecasting
Load Growth Behavior
Important Elements of a Spatial Forecast
Trending Methods
Simulation Methods for Spatial Load Forecasting
Hybrid Trending-Simulation Methods
Conclusion and Summary of Key Points
References and Bibliography
Planning and the T&D Planning Process
Goals, Priorities, and Direction
Tactical Planning: Finding the Best Alternative
Short- Versus Long-Range Planning
Uncertainty and Multi-Scenario Planning
The Power Delivery Planning Process
Summary and Key Points
References and Bibliography
Practical Aspects of T&D Load Forecasting
The First Step in T&D Planning
Weather Normalization and Design Criteria
Selection of a Forecast Method
Application of Spatial Forecast Methods
Conclusion and Summary
Bibliography and References
Balancing Reliability and Spending
The Fundamental Concepts
Optimizing Reliability Cost Effectiveness
CERI--A Practical Method to "Bootstrap" Reliability Improvement
Required Tools and Resources for Reliability Planning
"Equitableness" Issues in Reliability Optimization
Approaches to Setting and Planning Reliability Targets
Asset Management
Conclusion and Summary
References and Bibliography
Objectivity, Bias, and Accuracy in Planning
Introduction and Purpose of this Chapter
Objective Evaluation, Proponent Study, or Simply Poor Work?
Ways that Bias Makes Its Way into a T&D Planning Study
The "Rules" Used to Bias Planning Studies in an Unseen Manner
Areas Where Bias or Mistakes Are Often Introduced into a Study
Examples of Bogus, Proponent, and Masked Studies
Guidelines for Detecting, Finding, and Evaluating Bias
Summary and Conclusion: Forewarned is Forearmed
Key Points, Guidelines, Recommendations
On Distribution Systems
On Utilities and Utility Practices
On Planning Well