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Laser Safety Management

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ISBN-10: 0824723074

ISBN-13: 9780824723071

Edition: 2006

Authors: Ken Barat

List price: $195.00
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For the many research institutions and industries that regularly employ lasers, a proper laser safety program can mean big savings in time, money, and most importantly, human well-being. Based on the extensive experience of active Laser Safety Officer Kenneth Barat, Laser Safety Management provides practical tools for successfully implementing a laser safety program in any environment. The book explores the types of laser injuries that can occur, standard operating procedures to ensure safety, tips and tools to avoid pitfalls, training, control measures, and personal protection equipment. The author also discusses non-beam hazards and includes practical control examples and sample forms.
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Book details

List price: $195.00
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 2/22/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 296
Size: 6.10" wide x 9.25" long x 0.79" tall
Weight: 1.254
Language: English

Traditional Laser Safety
Life Cycle
The Laser or Laser System's Capability of Injuring Personnel
The Beam Path of the Laser System
The Interaction of the Laser Beam with its Intended Target
The Environment in which the Laser is Used
The Personnel Who May Use or be Exposed to Laser Radiation
Additional Life Cycle Elements
Time Base for Classification
Laser Safety Officer or Advisor
Research Group Leader or Supervisor
Field Service Staff and Vendors
Probabilistic Risk Assessment
Biological Effects: Why We Care About Laser Exposure
The Eye
Parts of the Human Eye
Blink and Aversion Response
Where Laser Radiation Goes
Signs of Eye Exposure
Damage Mechanisms
Electromechanical and Acoustic Damage
Thermal Damage
Photochemical Damage
Laser Radiation Effects on Skin
Subcutaneous Tissue
Tissue Optics
Scattering Cellular Structures
The Laser Safety Officer: The Key to Laser Safety
The Effective LSO Gets Out and Walks Laser Use Space
Laser Safety Committee
Warning Lights
Posting and Labeling
Beam Enclosures
Open Path Walkway
Protective Eyewear
Beam Containment
Fiber Optics
Standard Operating Procedures: A Binding Safety Contract
SOP Flow
The PI or Responsible Individual Develops the Draft SOP
The SOP Must Have a Complete and Accurate Work Description
Hazards Must be Clearly and Completely Identified
Sample Format
General Information
Description of Activity
Identification of Hazards
Mitigation of Hazards
Hazardous Material Handling
Hazardous Waste
Emergency Procedures
Authorized Users and Training
Follow-Up to the SOP
Preparation for Alignment
Alignment Methods to be Used for This Laser
Laser Control Boilerplates
General Laser Controls
Sample Laser SOP1
Laser Safety Contacts
Laser Description
Laser Safety Program
Operating Procedures
Control Measures
Personnel Protection Equipment
Operator Review
Laser and Laser System SOP Guidelines
Practical Tools for Laser Safety and Traps to Avoid
The Laser Safety "Tool Box" Wish List
Laser Hazard Evaluation Software
Warning Signs and Labels
Digital Camera
Laser Eyewear Samples
Resource Material
Transition Zone Between the LSO and Laser System Users
Beam Alignment and Viewing Aids
Sensor Cards
Optical Glass Sensors
Beam Blocks and Dumps
Beam Containment Enclosures
Active Barriers
Room Access Interlocks
Illuminated Warning Signs
Power Meters
Laser Safety Traps
800-nm Iceberg
Reflections: Visible or Invisible
Fiber Optics
The Laser-Safety Management Program
Benefits of the Laser-Safety Management Program
File Structure
Institutional Binder Sections
Standard Operation Procedures
Training and Authorized Worker List
Interlock Checks
Alignment Procedures
Audits and Self-Assessment Reports
Material Safety Data Sheets and URL
Engineering Safety Notes
Contact List
ES&H Chapters
Lessons Learned
Emergency Procedures
Optional Additions
Institutional Binders
Safety Structure
Safety Committee
Standards and Regulations
Audit Procedure and Records
Risk Assessments
Control Measures
Incident Investigation
External Liaison
Sample Forms
Sample Safety Check List
Laser Safety Training
User Training
Awareness Training
Class 1M, Class 2M, and Class 3R Awareness Training
On-the-Job Safety Training
Exploring Training Options
Text-Based Training
Computer-Based Training
Web-Based Training
Lecture (Classroom Style) Training
New Training Suggestion: A Laser Lessons Learned Class
Refresher Training
Laser Quizzes
Sample Questions
The Training Matrix
Laser Pointer Awareness
Personnel Protection Equipment
Full Attenuation
Visual Light Transmission
Comfort and Fit
Damage Threshold Considerations
Side Shields
Sensor Card Use
Ultrafast Lasers
Additional Considerations
Partial Attenuation (Alignment Eyewear)
Additional PPE
Protective Windows
Laser Curtains
Laser Accidents
Alignment Activities
Preparation for Alignment
Alignment Considerations
Alignment Conclusion
Failure to Wear Protective Eyewear
Electrical Hazards Overlooked
Additional Hazards and Solutions
Improper Restoration of Lasers after Servicing
Lack of Planning
Checklist for Developing a Checklist
Wearing the Wrong Eyewear and Improper Fit
Eyewear Failure
Fatigue and Stress
Workplace Culture
To Whom Are These Accidents Happening?
The Perceived Incident
Accident Investigation
Who Should Lead the Accident Investigation?
Who and How Many People Should Investigate an Accident?
Should the Immediate Supervisor be on the Team?
How Do You Make Sure that Investigators Are Impartial?
Reason for the Investigation: Why Are We Doing This?
Summary of Investigation Steps
Physical Evidence
Equipment Issues
Environmental Factors
Human Factors
Gather Background Information
Eyewitness Accounts
Written Report: Not Finished Until the Paperwork Is Done
Why Should Recommendations Be Made?
What Should Be Done if the Investigation Reveals Human Error?
Not Every Laser Accident Involves an Eye or Skin Injury
Typical Laser Pointer Incidents
Guidance for Laser Pointer Use
Examples of Laser Accidents
Medical Device Report (MDR) Report Key 397304, Report Number 1218402-2002-00019
Access Number M320116, MDR Database
Access Number M751889, MDR Databae
Access Number M817394, MDR Database
ORPS Report CH-AA-ANLE-ANLEER-1999-0005
From the Military Database
Data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System Database
Fire Case #1
Fire Case #2
Fire Case #3
Lubricant Fire
Range Finder
Bystander Observes Diffuse Beam During Laser Operation
Other Laser Accidents
Laser Accident Action Plan
General Guidance for Suspected Eye Injury
Medical Facility
Can Laser Accidents Be Prevented?
An Explanation of Control Measures
Administrative Controls
For the Institution
Research Lab Administrative Controls
Standard Operating Procedures
Education and Training
Authorized Personnel (Class 1M, 2M, 3R, and 4)
Alignment Procedures (All Classes Except Class 1)
Protective Equipment
Designation of Areas: Warning Signs and Labels
Spectators (Class 3B and Class 4)
Laser Radiation Transmitted by Optical Fiber
Laser Robotic Installations
Engineering Controls
Access Control (Interlocks)
Illuminated and Visible Warning Devices
Beam Enclosures
Temporary Laser Controlled Area
Laser Area Warning Signs
Engineering Control Measures
Protective Housings
Operating a Laser without Protective Housing
Interlocks on Removable Protective Housings (All Classes)
Service Access Panels (All Classes)
Viewing Windows, Display Screens, and Collecting Optics
Limited Open Beam Path (Class 3B and Class 4)
Remote Interlock Connector (Class 3B and Class 4)
Beam Stop or Attenuator (Class 3B or Class 4)
Laser Area Warning Signs and Activation Warnings
Laser Outdoor Controls (All Classes)
Use of Lasers in Navigable Airspace
Temporary Laser Controlled Area (All Classes)
Controlled Operation (Class 4)
Equipment Labels (All Classes)
U.S. and European Regulations and Standards
User Regulations
The Occupational and Safety Health Administration
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
State Regulations
User Standards
Manufacturer Regulations
Product Filing
Original Electronic Manufacturers
Laser Light Shows
CDRH Databases
Medical Products
British Regulations and Standards
Standards Versus Legislation
Regulations Under the Act
British Standards
Guidance Notes
Laser Safety Officer
Obtaining the Documents Cited
Laser Safety Calculations
Converting between Irradiance and Radiant Exposure
The Accessible Emission Limit
Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE)
Repetitively Pulsed Lasers
Extended Source Viewing
Diffuse Reflections
The Nominal Hazard Zone
Optical Density
Choosing Exposure Duration Times
Visible Wavelengths (400 to 700 nm): 0.25 sec
Near Infrared Wavelengths (700 to 1400 nm): 10 sec
Diffuse Reflections (Invisible Wavelengths): 600 sec
Ultraviolet Wavelengths: 30,000 sec
Limiting Aperture Note
Nonbeam Hazards
A Listing of Nonbeam Hazards
Electrical Hazards
Good Practice Guidelines for Electrical Hazards
Potential Electric Hazard Problems
Physical Hazards
Cryogenic Fluids
Radio Frequency (RF)
Plasma Emissions
UV and Visible Radiation
Explosion Hazard
Ionizing Radiation (X-Rays)
Chemical Hazards
Laser Dyes
Compressed and Toxic Gases
Fumes, Vapors, and Laser-Generated Air Contaminants from Beam-Target Interaction
Fire Hazards
Ergonomics and Human Factors
Seismic Safety
Area Illumination
Mechanical Hazards
Supplemental Electrical Safety Section
Life-Threatening Effects
Delayed Effects
Critical Path
Influential Variables
Practical Control Measures
Web Resources
Laser Basics
What is a Laser?
Laser Theory and Operation
Components of A Laser
Types of Lasers