Molecular Driving Forces Statistical Thermodynamics in Chemistry and Biology

ISBN-10: 0815320515

ISBN-13: 9780815320517

Edition: 2003

List price: $126.00
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This text shows how many complex behaviours of molecules can result from a few simple physical processes. A central theme is the idea that simplistic models can give accurate insights into the workings of the molecular world.
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Book details

List price: $126.00
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: Garland Publishing, Incorporated
Publication date: 9/13/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 704
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.586
Language: English

Ken A. Dill is Professor of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco. He received his undergraduate training at MIT, his PhD from the University of California, San Diego, and did postdoctoral work at Stanford. A leading researcher in biopolymer statistical mechanics and protein folding, he has been the President of the Biophysical Society and received the Hans Neurath Award from the Protein Society in 1998.Sarina Bromberg received her BFA at the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, her PhD in molecular biophysics from Wesleyan University, and her postdoctoral training at the University of California, San Francisco. She writes, edits and illustrates scientific textbooks.

Principles of Probability
Principles of Probability Are the Foundations of Entropy
What Is Probability?
Rules of Probability
Correlated Events/Conditional Probabilities
Distribution Functions
Averages, Standard Deviations
Extremum Principles Predict Equilibria
What Are Extremum Principles?
What Is a State of Equilibrium?
Maximizing Multiplicity
Simple Models
Heat, Work & Energy
Heat Flows to Maximize Entropy
Conservation Laws
Heat Was Thought to Be a Fluid
Atoms and Molecules Have Energies
Why Does Heat Flow?
Math Tools: Series and Approximations
Physical Modelling Involves Series Expansions
Making Approximations Involves Truncating Series'
Gaussian Distribution/Random Walk
Multivariate Calculus
Functions of Multiple Variables
Partial Derivatives
Extrema of Multivariate Functions
Integrating Multivariate Functions
The Chain Rule
Rearranging Dependent and Independent Variables
Entropy & the Boltzmann Distribution Law
What Is Entropy?
Flat Distributions if there Are No Constraints
Exponential Distributions if there Are Constraints
Principle of Fair Apportionment
Philosophical Foundations
Thermodynamic Driving Forces
Thermodynamics Is Two Laws
The Fundamental Thermodynamic Equations
Defining the Thermodynamic Driving Forces
Homogeneous Functions
Thermal, Mechanical, and Chemical Equilibria
Thermodynamic Logic
The First Law Interrelates Heat, Work, and Energy
Why Is There an Absolute Temperature Scale?
Other Statements of the Second Law
Free Energies
Switching from Entropy to Free Energy
Free Energy Defines Another Extremum Principle
Using the Heat Capacity
Using Thermodynamic Cycles
Maxwell's Relations & Mixtures
Predicting Unmeasurable Quantities
Maxwells Relations Interrelate Partial Derivatives
Multicomponent Systems/Partial Molar quantities
Linkage Relations
Boltzmann Distribution Law
Probability Distributions for Atoms and Molecules
The Boltzmann Law Describes Equilibria
What Does a Partition Function Tell You?
Thermodynamic Properties from Partition Functions
What Is an Ensemble?
Statistical Mechanics of Simple Gases and Solids
Macroscopic Properties from Atomic Structures
Translational Motion
Harmonic Oscillator Model
Rigid Rotor Model
Ideal Gas Properties
The Equipartition Theorem
Temperature, Heat Capacity
A Microscopic Perspective
A Graphical Procedure, from S to C[subscript v]
What Drives Heat Exchange?
The Heat Capacity Reflects Energy Fluctuations
Chemical Equilibria
Chemical Equilibria from Atomic Structures
Le Chatelier's Principle
Temperature Dependence of Equilibrium
Equilibria Between Liquids, Solids, and Gases
Phase Equilibria
The Clapeyron Equation
How Do Refrigerators and Heat Pumps Work?
Surface Tension
Solutions and Mixtures
A Lattice Model Describes Mixtures
Interfacial Tension
What Have We Left Out?
Solvation and Transfers of Molecules Between Phases
The Chemical Potential
Activity and Activity Coefficient
Boiling Point Elevation
Freezing Point Depression
Osmotic Pressure
Solutes Can Transfer and Partition
Dimerization in Solution
Vector Calculus
Vectors Describe Forces and Flows
Vectors Add and Subtract by Components
The Dot Product
Scalar and Vector Fields
The Flux of a Vector Field
Gauss's Theorem
Physical Kinetics
Forces Drive Molecules to Flow
Linear Laws Relate Forces to Flows
The Diffusion Equation
Sources and Sinks: Examples from Population Biology
Additional Forces
The Einstein-Smoluchowski Equation
Brownian Ratchets
The Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem
Onsager Reciprocal Relations Describe Coupled Flows
Chemical Kinetics & Transition States
Rates Depend on Temperature
Rates Are Proportional to Concentrations
At Equilibrium, Rates Obey Detailed Balance
Mass Action Laws Describe Mechanisms
Reaction Rates Depend on Temperature
Activated Processes and Transition State Theory
Catalysts Speed Up Chemical Reactions
The Bronsted Law
Funnel Landscapes and Diffusional Processes
Coulomb's Law
Charges and Coulomb's Law
Charge Interactions are Long-Ranged
Charge Interactions Are Weaker in Media: Dielectric Constants
Electrostatic Forces Add Like Vectors
What Is an Electrostatic Field?
Electric Fields Have Fluxes
The Electrostatic Potential
Electrostatic Potentials with Electrostatic Fields
Dipoles Are Separated Charges
The Poisson Equation
Method of Image Charges
Electrochemical Equilibria
Electrochemical Potentials in Ionic Solutions
The Nernst Equation
Voltage-Gated Ion Channels
Acid-Base Equilibria Are Shifted by Electrostatic Fields
Electrostatic Gradients Cause Ion Flows
Creating Charge Distribution Costs Free Energy
Salt Ions Shield Charged Objects
Salts Dissociate and Shield Other Charges
Strong and Weak Electrolytes
Intermolecular Interactions
Short-ranged Repulsions and Long-ranged Attractions
Short-ranged Attractions Are Electrostatic
The van der Waals Gas Model
The Lattice Model Contact Energy
Phase Transitions
Two States Can Be StabIe at the Same Time
Liquids or Solids Mix at High Temperatures
Phase Separations Are Driven to Lower the Free Energy
The Spinodal Curve
The Critical Point
The Principles of Boiling
Boiling a Liquid Mixture Involves Two Transitions
Abrupt Transitions Occur in Many Different Systems
Transitions and Critical Points Are Universal
The Landau Model
Helix-Coil Transitions
The Ising Model Describes Magnetization
The Kinetics of Phase Transitions and Nucleation
Adsorption, Binding & Catalysis
Binding and Adsorption Processes Are Saturable
The Langmuir Model
Binding and Saturation in Solution
The Principle of Adsorption Chromatography
Michaelis-Menten Model
Sabatier's Principle for Stabilizing Transition States
Multi-site Cooperative Ligand Binding
Binding Polynomials
The Two-site Model of Binding Cooperativity
Binding Intermediate States
Constructing Binding Polynomials from Rules of Probability
Oxygen Binding to Hemoglobin
Model of McGhee and von Hippel
Rates Can Often Be Treated by Using Binding Polynomials
Grand Canonical Ensemble
Water Is an Unusual Liquid
Water Has Hydrogen Bonded Structure
Pure Water Has Anomalous Properties
Water as a Solvent
Oil and Water Don't Mix: The Hydrophobic Effect
Signature of Hydrophobicity: Its Temperature Dependence
Water Is Structured Near Cavities and Planar Surfaces
Alcohols Constrict the Volumes of Aqueous Mixtures
Ions Can Make or Break Water Structure
Ion Pairing Preferences
Polymer Solutions
Polymers Are Governed by Statistics
Polymers Have Distributions of Conformations
Polymer Solutions Differ from Small Molecule Solutions
The Flory-Huggins Model
Nonideal Colligative Properties
The Phase Behavior of Polymers
Dilution Entropy Drives Solute Partitioning into Polymers
The Flory Theorem
Polymer Elasticity
Polymeric Materials Are Elastic
Random-flight Chains Are Gaussian
Polymer Elasticity Follows Hooke's Law
Elasticity of Rubbery Materials
Polymer Collapse and Expansion
Polymers Resist Confinement & Deformation
Excluded Volume
Chain Conformations Are Perturbed Near Surfaces
Polymer Conformations by a Diffusion Equation Method
Polymers Tend to Avoid Confined Spaces
The Rouse-Zimm Model of Polymer Dynamics
The Reptation Model
Table of Constants
Table of Units
Useful Taylor Series Expansions
Useful Integrals
Multiples of Units, Their Names, and Symbols
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