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Handbook of Research Methods A Guide for Practitioners and Students in the Social Sciences

ISBN-10: 0810844869

ISBN-13: 9780810844865

Edition: 2nd 2002 (Revised)

Authors: Natalie L. Sproull

List price: $85.00
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Description:

The entire research process is covered, step-by-step, but new to this edition is a chapter overview of multivariate techniques. With every major concept are its definition, purpose, advantages, disadvantages, process and an example.
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Book details

List price: $85.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Scarecrow Press, Incorporated
Publication date: 1/1/1995
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 448
Size: 5.75" wide x 8.25" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 1.254
Language: English

To the Reader
Preliminaries
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
How to Use This Book
The Impact of Research
Planning and Control
The Research Process
Research Ethics
Ethical Practices
The Research Proposal
PERT/CPM
Where You Are Now
Determine the Variables and Operational Definitions
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
How Research Problems Originate
The Decision to Conduct Research
Research Problems
Identify and Label the Variables
Types of Variables
Determine and State the Operational Definitions
Where You Are Now
Determine the Research Questions or Hypotheses
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
State the Expected Relationship Between Variables
Decide Whether to Use Hypothesis Testing or Research Questions
Hypothesis Testing
If You Use a Population
State the Preliminary Hypothesis or Research Question
Where You Are Now
Hypothesis Testing
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
Research Hypotheses
Null Hypotheses
Directional and Nondirectional Hypotheses
Decide Whether to State Directional or Nondirectional Hypotheses
Select the Significance Level
Statistical and Practical Significance
Where You Are Now
Levels of Measurement, Validity and Reliability
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
Levels of Measurement
Validity and Reliability
Validity Estimates
Reliability Estimates
Where You Are Now
Review the Related Information
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
List the Variables, Population and Theories
Determine Sources of Desired Information
Determine the Location of the Information
Determine How to Retrieve the Information
Conduct the Review of Information Available
Read the Literature
Record the Information
Synthesize the Information and Determine the Next Steps
Where You Are Now
Determine the Sampling Method and Procedures
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
Define the Population
Determine the Sampling Unit
Determine the Sampling Frame
Determine the Sampling Method
Random Sampling Methods
Nonrandom Sampling Methods
Cluster Sampling
Concepts Related to Sample Size
Determine the Sample Size
List the Sampling Procedures
Where You Are Now
Select the Research Design
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
Selecting the Type of Research Design
Experimental Design
Control Mechanisms
Internal and External Validity of Experimental Designs
True Experimental Designs
Extensions of the True Experimental Designs
Quasi-Experimental Designs
Nonexperimental Designs
Historical Designs
Where You Are Now
Determine the Data Collection Methods
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
The Interviewing Method
Instrument Administration
Observation
Examination of Documents, Materials and Artifacts
Unobtrusive Measures
Where You Are Now
Determine the Instruments to Measure the Variables
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
Instruments
Select or Design an Instrument
Selecting an Existing Instrument
Designing an Instrument
General Categories of Instruments
Performance Measures
Measures of Attitudes, Opinions, Beliefs and Values
Measures of Interests, Intelligence and Personality
Demographic Measures
Where You Are Now
Designing Questionnaires or Interview Schedules
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
Reminders
List the Variables
Consider Demographic Variables
Specify the Characteristics of the Respondents
Select Mail, Telephone or Personal Approach
Increasing Response Rates of Mailed Questionnaires
Determine the Amount of Structure
Determine the Response Format
Multiple-Choice Responses
Dichotomous Response Format
Open-Ended Response Format
Write the Items
Check the Items for Invalidating Factors
Write the Introduction and Ending
Determine Placement of the Items
Complete the Questionnaire Preparation
Train the Questionnaire Administrator or Interviewer
Conduct a Pilot Test
Where You Are Now
Other Types of Instruments
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
Independent and Nonindependent Responses
Rating Scales
Summated Rating (Likert-Type) Scales
Thurstone Equal Appearing Interval Scale
The Semantic Differential
The Single Anchor Scale
Multidimensional Scaling
Guttman Scalogram Analysis
Rank Order Methods
The Constant Sum Method
The Q Technique
Paired Comparison Method
Checklists
The Delphi Method
Projective Techniques
Content Analysis
Observation Instruments
Instruments for Existing Documents, Materials and Artifacts
Where You Are Now
Select the Statistical Test
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
Statistics and Parameters
Parametric and Nonparametric Tests
The Normal Distribution
The Critical Value
Degrees of Freedom
Determine the Statistical Purpose
Significance of Group Differences
Degree of Association Among Variables
Select the Statistical Procedure
The Chi-square Test of Independence
t-Test for Two Independent Groups
Analysis of Variance
The Scheffe Test after an ANOVA
Bivariate Regression: The Pearson Product-moment Correlation
Prediction: The Regression Coefficient
Where You Are Now
Multivariate Techniques
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
Two-Way Analysis of Variance
Multiple Regression
Other Multivariate Techniques
Where You Are Now
Data Handling and Reduction
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
Preparation for Data Handling
Plan for Editing the Data
Plan for Data Reduction and Summaries
Frequency Distributions
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variability
Contingency Tables and Cross Tabulations
Using a Computer
Where You Are Now
Complete the Pilot Study, the Proposal, the Research and the Report
Steps to Take After Reading This Chapter
Conduct the Pilot Study
How to Conduct a Pilot Study
Complete the Proposal
Submit the Proposal to the Sponsor
Conduct the Research
Write the Research Report
Sections Which Are Included in Most Research Reports
Suggestions for Writing the Report
Graphs and Charts
Personal Presentation of the Research Report
Post Research Blues
Where You Are Now