Montessori Method

ISBN-10: 0805209220

ISBN-13: 9780805209228

Edition: 1964

Authors: Mar�a Montessori

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A radical departure from conventional educational wisdom when it first came onto the scene, the Montessori method has become one of the most powerful and influential sets of ideas and practices on the education of children.
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Book details

List price: $16.95
Copyright year: 1964
Publisher: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group
Publication date: 10/30/1988
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 416
Size: 5.25" wide x 5.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 0.990
Language: English

A Critical Consideration of the New Pedagogy in its Relation to Modern Science
Influence of Modern Science upon Pedagogy
Italy's part in the development of Scientific Pedagogy
Difference between scientific technique and the scientific spirit
Direction of the preparation should be toward the spirit rather than toward the mechanism
The master to study man in the awakening of his intellectual life
Attitude of the teacher in the light of another example
The school must permit the free natural manifestations of the child if in the school Scientific Pedagogy is to be born
Stationary desks and chairs proof that the principle of slavery still informs the school
Conquest of liberty, what the school needs
What may happen to the spirit
Prizes and punishments, the bench of the soul
All human victories, all human progress, stand upon the inner force
History of Methods
Necessity of establishing the method peculiar to Scientific Pedagogy
Origin of educational system in use in the "Children's Houses"
Practical application of the methods of Itard and Seguin in the Orthophrenic School at Rome
Origin of the methods for the education of deficients
Application of the methods in Germany and France
Seguin's first didactic material was spiritual
Methods for deficients applied to the education of normal children
Social and pedagogic importance of the "Children's Houses"
Inaugural Address Delivered on the Occasion of the Opening of one of the "Children's Houses"
The Quarter of San Lorenzo before and since the establishment of the "Children's Houses"
Evil of subletting the most cruel form of usury
The problem of life more profound than that of the intellectual elevation of the poor
Isolation of the masses of the poor, unknown to past centuries
Work of the Roman Association of Good Building and the moral importance of their reforms
The "Children's House" earned by the parents through their care of the building
Pedagogical organization of the "Children's House"
The "Children's House" the first step toward the socialisation of the house
The communised house in its relation to the home and to the spiritual evolution of women
Rules and regulations of the "Children's Houses"
Pedagogical Methods Used in the "Children's Houses"
Child psychology can be established only through the method of external observation
Anthropological consideration
Anthropological notes
Environment and schoolroom furnishings
Discipline through liberty
Abolition of prizes and external forms of punishment
Biological concept of liberty in pedagogy
How the Lesson Should be Given
Characteristics of the individual lessons
Method of observation the fundamental guide
Difference between the scientific and unscientific methods illustrated
First task of educators to stimulate life, leaving it then free to develop
Exercises of Practical Life
Suggested schedule for the "Children's Houses"
The child must be prepared for the forms of social life and his attention attracted to these forms
Cleanliness, order, poise, conversation
Refection--The Child's Diet
Diet must be adapted to the child's physical nature
Foods and their preparation
Distribution of meals
Muscular Education--Gymnastics
Generally accepted idea of gymnastics is inadequate
The special gymnastics necessary for little children
Other pieces of gymnastic apparatus
Free gymnastics
Educational gymnastics
Respiratory gymnastics, and labial, dental, and lingual gymnastics
Nature in Education--Agricultural Labour: Culture of Plants and Animals
The savage of the Aveyron
Itard's educative drama repeated in the education of little children
Gardening and horticulture basis of a method for education of children
The child initiated into observation of the phenomena of life and into foresight by way of auto-education
Children are initiated into the virtue of patience and into confident expectation, and are inspired with a feeling for nature
The child follows the natural way of development of the human race
Manual Labour--The Potter's Art, and Building
Difference between manual labour and manual gymnastics
The School of Educative Art
Archaeological, historical, and artistic importance of the vase
Manufacture of diminutive bricks and construction of diminutive walls and houses
Education of the Senses
Aim of education to develop the energies
Difference in the reaction between deficient and normal children in the presentation of didactic material made up of graded stimuli
Education of the senses has as its aim the refinement of the differential perception of stimuli by means of repeated exercises
Three Periods of Seguin
Education of the Senses and Illustrations of the Didactic Material: General Sensibility: The Tactile, Thermic, Baric and Stereognostic Senses
Education of the tactile, thermic and baric senses
Education of the stereognostic sense
Education of the senses of taste and smell
Education of the sense of vision
Exercises with the three series of cards
Education of the chromatic sense
Exercise for the discrimination of sounds
Musical education
Tests for acuteness of hearing
A lesson in silence
General Notes on the Education of the Senses
Aim in education biological and social
Education of the senses makes men observers and prepares them directly for practical life
Intellectual Education
Sense exercises a species of auto-education
Importance of an exact nomenclature, and how to teach it
Spontaneous progress of the child the greatest triumph of Scientific Pedagogy
Games of the blind
Application of the visual sense to the observation of environment
Method of using didactic material: dimensions, form, design
Free plastic work
Geometric analysis of figures
Exercises in the chromatic sense
Method for the Teaching of Reading and Writing
Spontaneous development of graphic language: Seguin and Itard
Necessity of a special education that shall fit man for objective observation and direct logical thought
Results of objective observation and logical thought
Not necessary to begin teaching writing with vertical strokes
Spontaneous drawing of normal children
Use of Froebel mats in teaching children sewing
Children should be taught how before they are made to execute a task
Two diverse forms of movement made in writing
Experiments with normal children
Origin of aphabets in present use
Description of the Method and Didactic Material Used
Exercise tending to develop the muscular mechanism necessary in holding and using the instrument in writing
Didactic material for writing
Exercise tending to establish the visual-muscular image of the alphabetical signs, and to establish the muscular memory of the movements necessary to writing
Exercises for the composition of words
Reading, the interpretation of an idea from written signs
Games for the reading of words
Games for the reading of phrases
Point education has reached in the "Children's Houses"
Language in Childhood
Physiological importance of graphic language
Two periods in the development of language
Analysis of speech necessary
Defects of language due to education
Teaching of Numeration: Introduction to Arithmetic
Numbers as represented by graphic signs
Exercises for the memory of numbers
Addition and subtraction from one to twenty: multiplication and division
Lessons on decimals: arithmetical calculations beyond ten
Sequence of Exercises
Sequence and grades in the presentation of material and in the exercises
First grade
Second grade
Third grade
Fourth grade
Fifth grade
General Review of Discipline
Discipline better than in ordinary schools
First dawning of discipline comes through work
Orderly action is the true rest for muscles intended by nature for action
The exercise that develops life consists in the repetition, not in the mere grasp of the idea
Aim of repetition that the child shall refine his senses through the exercise of attention, of comparison, of judgment
Obedience is naturally sacrifice
Obedience develops will-power and the capacity to perform the act it becomes necessary to obey
Conclusions and Impressions
The teacher has become the director of spontaneous work in the "Children's Houses"
The problems of religious education should be solved by positive pedagogy
Spiritual influence of the "Children's Houses"
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