Value of Learning How Organizations Capture Value and ROI and Translate It into Support, Improvement, and Funds

ISBN-10: 0787985325

ISBN-13: 9780787985325

Edition: 2007

Authors: Patricia Pulliam Phillips, Jack J. Phillips

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A Guide That Shows How to Capture the Value of Learning "Clearly the Phillips are the established experts, and in this book offer tested, step-by-step ways to succeed and gain the necessary organizational support for learning. Just to underscore the importance that a number of us at Capella University place in the Phillips work, we are proud to use their methods and tools in our courses to allow our learners to obtain ROI certification as part of our masters and doctoral programs in Training and Performance Improvement. I recommend this book to anyone interested in proving the value of learning." -Michael J. Offerman, president, Capella University "Understanding the value of learning is critical for all business professionals. This book provides specific tools and techniques for evaluating learning effectiveness. A must read for anyone interested in the value of learning." -Tamar Elkeles, Ph.D., vice president, Learning and Development, QUALCOMM
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Book details

List price: $62.95
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 7/27/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 464
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 1.892
Language: English

List of Exhibits, Figures, and Tables
Preface
Acknowledgments
Building a Comprehensive Evaluation Process
Challenges
Global Evaluation Trends
Measurement and Evaluation Challenges
Benefits of Measurement and Evaluation
The Myths of Measurement and Evaluation
Key Steps and Issues
Stakeholders
Levels and Steps
Chain of Impact
ROI Process Model
Objectives
Evaluation Planning
Data Collection
Analysis
Isolation of the Effects of Learning and Development
Conversion of Data to Monetary Values
The Cost of Programs
The Return on Investment Calculation
Intangible Benefits
Data Reporting
Operating Standards
Implementation Issues
Final Thoughts
Defining Needs and Objectives: Ensuring Business Alignment
The Challenge
Business Alignment Issues
Begin with the End in Mind
Required Discipline
The Needs Analysis Dilemma
Payoff Needs
Key Questions
Obvious vs. Not So Obvious
The Reasons for New Programs
Determining Costs of the Problem
The Value of Opportunity
To Forecast or Not to Forecast
Business Needs
Determining the Opportunity
Defining the Business Measure-Hard Data
Defining the Business Need-Soft Data
Using Tangible vs. Intangible-A Better Approach
Finding Sources of Impact Data
Identifying All the Measures
Exploring "What If...?"
Job Performance Needs
Analysis Techniques
Taking a Sensible Approach
Learning Needs
Subject-Matter Experts
Job and Task Analysis
Observations
Demonstrations
Tests
Management Assessment
Preference Needs
Key Issues
Impact Studies
Levels of Objectives for Programs
Reaction and Planned Action
Learning Objectives
Application and Implementation Objectives
Business Impact Objectives
ROI Objectives
The Importance of Specific Objectives
Final Thoughts
Measuring Inputs and Indicators
Measuring Input and Indicators
Defines the Input
Reflects Commitment
Facilitates Benchmarking
Explains Coverage
Highlights Efficiencies
Provides Cost Data
Tracking Participants
Tracking Hours
Tracking Coverage by Jobs and Functional Areas
Tracking Topics and Programs
Tracking Requests
Tracking Delivery
Tracking Costs
Pressure to Disclose All Costs
The Danger of Costs Without Benefits
Sources of Costs
Learning Program Steps and Costs
Prorated Versus Direct Costs
Employee Benefits Factor
Major Cost Categories
Cost Reporting
Tracking Efficiencies
Tracking Outsourcing
Tracking for the Scorecard
Defining Key Issues
Input Is Not Results
Reports to Executives Should Be Minimized
The Data Represent Operational Concerns
This Data Must Be Automated
Final Thoughts
Measuring Reaction and Planned Action
Why Measure Reaction and Planned Action?
Customer Service
Early Feedback Is Essential
Making Adjustments and Changes
Predictive Capability
For Some, This Is the Most Important Data
Comparing Data with Other Programs
Creating a Macro Scorecard
Sources of Data
Participants
Participants' Managers
Internal Customers
Facilitators
Sponsors/Senior Managers
Areas of Feedback
Content vs. Non-Content
The Deceptive Feedback Cycle
Key Areas for Feedback
Timing of Data Collection
Early, Detailed Feedback
Pre-Assessments
Collecting at Periodic Intervals
For Long Programs with Multiple Parts
Data Collection with Questionnaires and Surveys
Questionnaire/Survey Design
Intensities
Questionnaire/Survey Response Rates
Sample Surveys
Data Collection with Interviews and Focus Groups
Improving Reaction Evaluation
Keep Responses Anonymous
Have a Neutral Person Collect the Forms
Provide a Copy in Advance
Explain the Purpose of the Feedback and How It Will Be Used
Explore an Ongoing Evaluation
Consider Quantifying Course Ratings
Collect Information Related to Improvement
Allow Ample Time for Completing the Form
Delayed Evaluation
Ask for Honest Feedback
Using Data
Building the Macro-Level Scorecard
Shortcut Ways to Measure Reaction and Planned Action
Final Thoughts
Measuring Learning and Confidence
Why Measure Learning and Confidence?
The Importance of Intellectual Capital
The Learning Organization
The Learning Transfer Problem
The Compliance Issue
The Use and Development of Competencies
The Role of Learning in Programs
The Chain of Impact
Certification
Consequences of an Unprepared Workforce
The Challenges and Benefits of Measuring Learning
The Challenges
The Benefits
Measurement Issues
Objectives
Typical Measures
Timing
Cognitive
Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy
Data Collecton Methods
Questionnaires/Surveys
Objective Tests
Criterion-Referenced Tests
Performance Tests
Technology and Task Simulations
Case Studies
Role Playing/Skill Practice
Assessment Center Method
Exercises/Activities
Informal Assessments
Administrative Issues
Reliability and Validity
Consistency
Monitoring
Pilot Testing
Readability
Scoring
Reporting
Confronting Test Failures
Using Learning Data
Final Thoughts
Measuring Application and Implementation
Why Measure Application and Implementation?
The Value of Information
A Key Transition Time
The Key Focus of Many Programs
The Chain of Impact
Barriers and Enablers
Reward Those Who Are Most Effective
Challenges of Measuring Application and Implementation
Linking Application with Learning
Designing Data Collection into Programs
Applying Serious Effort to Level 3 Evaluation
Including Level 3 in the Needs Assessment
Developing ROI with Application Data
Key Issues
Methods
Objectives
Topics to Explore
Sources
Timing
Responsibilities
The Use of Questionnaires
Progress with Objectives
Relevance/Importance of the Program
Knowledge/Skill Use
Changes with Work/Action Items
Improvements/Accomplishments
Define the Measure
Provide the Change
Monetary Value
Total Impact
List of Other Factors
Improvements Linked with the Program
Perceived Value
Links with Output Measures
Success of the Program Team
Barriers and Enablers
Management Support
Appropriateness of Program and Suggestions for Improvement
Checklist
Improving Response Rates
Data Collection with Interviews
Types of Interviews
Interview Guidelines
Data Collection with Focus Groups
Applications for Focus Group Evaluation
Guidelines
On-the-job Observation
Guidelines for Effective Observation
The Use of Action Plans and Follow-Up Assignments
Developing the Action Plan
Successful Use of Action Plans
Action Plan Advantages and Disadvantage
The Use of Performance Contracts
Transfer of Learning
Developing ROI for Level 3
Data Use
Final Thoughts
Measuring and Isolating the Impact of Programs
Why Measure Business Impact?
Higher-Level Data
Breaking the Chain of Impact
A Business Driver for Many Programs
Show Me the Money Data
Easy to Measure
Common Data Types
Types of Impact Measures
Hard Versus Soft Data
Tangible Versus Intangible
Scorecards
Specific Measures Linked to Programs
Business Performance Monitoring
Identify Appropriate Measures
Convert Current Measures to Usable Ones
Developing New Measures
The Use of Action Plans to Develop Business Impact Data
Set Goals and Targets
Define the Unit of Measure
Place a Monetary Value on Each Improvement
Implement the Action Plan
Provide Specific Improvements
Isolate the Effects of the Program
Provide a Confidence Level for Estimates
Collect Action Plans at Specified Time Intervals
Summarize the Data and Calculate the ROI
Advantages of Action Plans
Use of Performance Contracts to Measure Business Impact
The Use of Questionnaires to Collect Business Impact Data
When You Don't Have a Clue
When the Measure Is a Defined Set
When the Measure Is Known
Response Rates
Selecting the Appropriate Data Collection Method for Each Level
Isolating the Effects of the Program
Identifying Other Factors: A First Step
Using Control Groups
Using Trend-Line Analysis
Forecasting
Using Estimates
Calculating the Impact of Other Factors
Use of the Techniques
Final Thoughts
Identifying Benefits and Costs, and Calculating ROI
Why Calculate Monetary Benefits?
Value Equals Money
Impact Is More Understandable
Money Is Necessary for ROI
Monetary Value Is Needed to Understand Problems
Key Steps to Convert Data to Money
Standard Monetary Values
Converting Output Data to Money
Calculating the Cost of Quality
Converting Employee Time Using Compensation
Finding Standard Values
Data Conversion When Standard Values Are Not Available
Using Historical Costs from Records
Using Input from Experts to Convert Soft Data
Using Values from External Databases
Linking with Other Measures
Using Estimates from Participants
Using Estimates from the Management Team
Using Staff Estimates
Technique Selection and Finalizing the Values
Use the Technique Appropriate for the Type of Data
Move from Most Accurate to Least Accurate
Consider the Resources
When Estimates Are Sought, Use the Source with the
Broadest Perspective on the Issue
Use Multiple Techniques When Feasible
Apply the Credibility Test
Review the Client's Needs
Is This Another Project?
Consider a Potential Management Adjustment
Consider the Short-Term/Long-Term Issue
Consider an Adjustment for the Time Value of Money
Why Monitor Costs?
Why Measure ROI?
Fundamental Cost Issues
Monitor Costs, Even If They Are Not Needed
Cost Will Not Be Precise
Disclose All Costs
Fully Loaded Costs
Reporting Costs Without Benefits
Cost-Tracking Issues
Prorated Versus Direct Costs
Employee Benefits Factor
Major Cost Categories
Initial Analysis and Assessment
Development of Solutions
Acquisition Costs
Application and Implementation Costs
Maintenance and Monitoring
Support and Overhead
Evaluation and Reporting
Cost Accumulation and Estimation
Basic ROI Issues
Definition
Annualized Values: A Fundamental Concept
BCR/ROI Calculations
Benefit/Cost Ratio
ROI Formula
ROI Targets
ROI Is Not for Every Program
Other ROI Measures
Payback Period
Discounted Cash Flow
Final Thoughts
Measuring the Hard to Measure and the Hard to Value: Intangible Benefits
Why Intangibles Are Important
Intangibles Are the Invisible Advantage
We Are Entering the Intangible Economy
More Intangibles Are Converted to Tangibles
Intangibles Drive Programs
Measurement and Analysis of Intangibles
Measuring the Intangibles
Converting to Money
Identifying Intangibles
Analyzing Intangibles
Customer Service
Team Effectiveness
Cooperation/Conflict
Decisiveness/Decision Making
Communication
Innovation and Creativity
Innovation
Creativity
Employee Attitudes
Employee Satisfaction
Organizational Commitment
Employee Engagement
Employee Capability
Experience
Knowledge
Learning
Competencies
Educational Level
Attention
Leadership
360-Degree Feedback
Leadership Inventories
Leadership Perception
Job Creation and Acquisition
Productivity Versus Job Growth
Importance of Job Creation and Growth
Recruitment Sourcing and Effectiveness
Recruitment Efficiency
Stress
Networking
Final Thoughts
Reporting Results
Why the Concern About Communicating Results?
Communication Is Necessary to Make Improvements
Communication Is Necessary to Explain Contributions
Communication Is a Politically Sensitive Issue
Different Audiences Need Different Information
Principles of Communicating Results
Communication Must Be Timely
Communication Should Be Targeted to Specific Audiences
Media Should Be Carefully Selected
Communication Should Be Unbiased and Modest
Communication Must Be Consistent
Testimonials Are More Effective Coming from Respected Individuals
The Audience's Opinion of the Program Will Influence the Communication Strategy
The Process for Communicating Results
The Need for Communication
Planning the Communications
The Audience for Communications
Basis for Selecting the Audience
Information Development: The Impact Study
Communication Media Selection
Meetings
Interim and Progress Reports
Routine Communication Tools
E-Mail and Electronic Media
Program Brochures and Pamphlets
Case Studies
Presenting Information
Routine Feedback on Program Progress
The Presentation of Results to Senior Management
Streamlining the Communication
Building Scorecards
Reactions to Communication
Using Evaluation Data
Final Thoughts
Implementing and Sustaining a Comprehensive Evaluation System
Why the Concern About Implementing and Sustaining Evaluation?
Resistance Is Always Present
Implementation Is Key
Consistency Is Needed
Efficiency Is Necessary
Implementing the Process: Overcoming Resistance
Assessing the Climate
Developing Roles and Responsibilities
Identifying a Champion
Developing the Evaluation Leader
Establishing a Task Force
Assigning Responsibilities
Establishing Goals and Plans
Setting Evaluation Targets
Developing a Timetable for Implementation
Revising or Developing Policies and Guidelines
Preparing the L&D Team
Involving the L&D Team
Using Measurement and Evaluation as a Learning Tool
Teaching the L&D Team
Initiating Evaluation Studies
Selecting the Initial Program
Developing the Planning Documents
Reporting Progress
Establishing Discussion Groups
Preparing the Sponsors and Management Team
Removing Obstacles
Dispelling Myths
Delivering Bad News
Monitoring Progress
Final Thoughts
How Results-Based Are Your Workplace
Learning and Performance Programs? An Assessment for the L&D Staff
Glossary
Index
About the Authors
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