Environmental Health Ecological Perspectives

ISBN-10: 0763723770

ISBN-13: 9780763723774

Edition: 2006

Authors: Kathryn Hilgenkamp

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Environmental Health: Ecological Perspectives is intended as an environmental health text for both undergraduate and graduate levels of study. This text provides balanced coverage of how humans are affected by the quality of air, water, and food as well as how humans affect these survival necessities. The evolution and prosperity of the human species has resulted in concerns about pollution, overpopulation, and several other issues that are having a harmful effect on humans and our environment. This knowledge, along with an understanding of the legislation and history of environmental issues, will help students to make positive changes in their behavior and in the world around them.
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Book details

List price: $99.95
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC
Publication date: 9/9/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 382
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.310
Language: English

Environmental Principles and Ecology
Introduction
The Earth
Lithosphere
Hydrosphere
Biosphere
The Cycles of Life
The Solar Cycle
The Energy Cycle
Biogeochemical Cycling
The Hydrologic Cycle
Sedimentary Cycle
Gaseous Cycles
Human Interaction Problems with the Environment
Overpopulation
Demand on Natural Resources
Environmental Degradation
Species Extinction
Human Solutions to Environmental Problems
Public Health and Environmental Health Strategies
Summary
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Selected Professional Journals
Additional Reading
Humans and Global Issues
Introduction
Global Environmental Concerns
Uncontrolled Population Growth
Land Pollution
Increased Energy Needs
Air Pollution
Climate Changes
Disease Prevention and Control
Disasters and War
Toxic Substances
Saving the Planet
Population Control
Reduction in Water Demands
Reduction in World Hunger
Land Preservation
New Sources of Energy
Global Collaboration
Stockholm Conference (1972)
Montego Bay (1982)
Montreal Protocol (1987)
The Helsinki Declaration (1989)
Earth Summit (1992)
Copenhagen (1996)
The Kyoto Protocol (1997)
The Convention on Biological Diversity (1998)
World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002)
Countries Helping Other Countries
Predicting Global Advancements in Environmental Health Issues
Summary
References
Assignments
Environmental Law
Professional Journals
Additional Reading
Effects of the Environment on Public Health
Introduction
Public Health Efforts in Ancient Cities
The Atomic Theory of Disease
The Roman Empire: Hygiene and Sanitation (753 to 509 B.C.)
The Middle Ages: Sin Theory of Disease (500 B.C. to A.D. 1400)
The Renaissance Period: The Recovery (1400 to 1700)
Age of Enlightenment: The Filth Theory of Disease (1700-1800)
Industrial Revolution: The Great Sanitary Awakening (1800-1880)
Health Resources Expansion (1910 to 1945)
The Age of Social Engineering (1945 to 1975)
Health Promotion Period (1974 to Present)
Environmental Health: An Important Component of Public Health Efforts
Future Public and Environmental Health Concerns
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Professional Journals
Additional Readings
Epidemiology and Environmental Diseases
Introduction
The Relationship of Environmental Health and Disease Prevention
Emerging Diseases
The Threat of Biological Warfare
Environmental Disease Agents
Explaining Immunity
Evolution of Immunity
Individuals Susceptible to Disease
Disease Control Efforts
Epidemiology
Biological Agents
Allergens
Pathogens
Transmission of Diseases
Airborne Illnesses
Waterborne Illnesses
Zoonoses
Vector-Transmitted Illnesses
Soil
Fomite
Nosocomial Infections
Pathogens
Bacterial infections
Viral Infections
Prion Infections
Fungal Infections
Protozoan Infections
National and Local Precautions
Medical Precautions
Summary
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Selected Professional Journals
Additional Reading
Environmental Toxins and Toxicology
Introduction
Toxicology
Definitions of Toxic Substances
Environmental Toxins
Natural Elements
Arsenic
Cadmium
Chromium
Copper
Lead
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Radon
Silver
Manufactured (Chemical) Substances
Acetone
Benzene
Carbon Disulfide
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
Chlorine
Cyanide
Dieldrin and Aldrin
Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane
Dioxins
Formaldehyde
Nitrites
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
Methylene Chloride
Pentachlorophenol
Polybrominated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Phthalates
Sodium Hypochlorite
Styrene
Vinyl Acetate
Vinyl Chloride
The Role of Environmental Scientists
Scope of Environmental Toxin Problems
Summary
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Selected Professional Journals
Additional Reading
Environmental Health Risk Assessment and Intervention
Introduction
The Determination of Risk
Risk Assessment
Risk Assessment Models
Epidemiologic Model
The Exposure-Disease Model
Risk Assessment Methods
Historical Data
Knowledge of Comparative Risks
Clinical and Epidemiological Studies
Longitudinal Studies
Laboratory Studies
Calculating or Estimating Risk
Systematic Risk Analysis
Hazard Identification
Exposure
Dose-Response
Biological Effect
Determination of Risk
The Acceptance of Risk
Risk Equations
Risk Management
Setting Standards
Setting Guidelines
Developing Policies
Control Strategies
Primary Prevention
Secondary Prevention
Tertiary Prevention
Risk Management Strategies
Communication of Risk
Risk Monitoring
Protecting the Public
Environmental Impact Studies
Summary
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Selected Professional Journals
Additional Reading
Pests and Pesticides
Introduction
Arthropods
Insects
Arachnids
Rodents
Other Pests
Pest Control and Elimination Methods
Insecticides
Fungicides
Herbicides
Rodenticides
Human Risk of Pesticides
Regulation of Pesticides, Fungicides, and Herbicides
Summary
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Selected Professional Journals
Additional Reading
Air
Introduction
Atmospheric Air
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Carbon
Hydrogen
Inert Gases
Sulfur Dioxide
Nitrous Oxide and Nitrous Dioxide
Methane
The Ozone Layer
Air Pollution
Taking Action Against Air Pollution
Greenhouse Gases
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Nitrous Dioxide
Halocarbons
Hazardous Air Pollutants
Acid Rain
Disaster Air Pollution Concerns
Efforts for Cleaner Air
Air Pollution Across the Globe
Methods for Reduction of Pollution
Control of Automobile Emissions
Voluntary Actions by Industries
Open Burning Laws
Summary
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Selected Professional Journals
Additional Reading
Water
Introduction
Water: A Natural Habitat
Water: A Natural Resource
Types of Water
Surface Water
Groundwater
Water Tables
Watersheds
Freshwater Uses
Agricultural Use
Industrial Use
Household Use
Aquaculture
Hydroelectric Generation
Global Warming Issues
Water Pollution Issues
Surface Water Pollution
Ground Water Pollution
Point Source Versus Nonpoint Source
Point Source Pollution
Nonpoint Source Pollution
Water Pollution Measures
Recreational Waters
Drinking Water
Bacteria
Chemicals
Metals
Radioactive Particles
Pharmaceuticals
Drinking Water Systems
Rural Drinking Water Systems
Municipal Water Supply Systems
Mineral Content of Drinking Water
Regulating Drinking Water
Threats to Drinking Water Safety
Trihalomethanes
Antiquated Municipal Water Systems
Bioterrorism Threats to Water Supplies
Acceptable Levels of Water Contaminants?
Future Water Supply Strategies
Summary
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Selected Professional Journals
Additional Readings
Land
Introduction
Land Definitions
Mountains
Forests
Wetlands
Land Preservation
Effects of Land Usage
Soil Erosion
Coastal Erosion
Overgrazing
Mining
Desertification
Preservation of Wildlife
Soil Composition
Farmland and Topsoil Issues
Changes in Farming Practices
Land Pollution
Brownfields
Human Waste Discharges
Natural Disasters
Forest and Wild Fires
Earthquakes
Tornados
Floods
Hurricanes
Subsidence
Landslides and Avalanches
Buying and Selling Land
More to Consider
Summary
References
Assignments
Laws
Selected Professional Journals
Additional Reading
Energy
Introduction
Fossil Fuels
Coal
Petroleum
Fuel Oils
Nonfossil Fuels
Natural Gas
Uranium
Environmental Health Concerns
Problems with Coal and Uranium Mining Operations
Problems with Petroleum Production
Problems with Power Plants
Renewable Energy Sources
Wood
Waste Incineration
Hydropower
Geothermal Energy
Solar Power
Wind Power
New Fuel Sources
Bioenergy
Landfill Gas Recovery
Fuels for Automobiles
The Importance of Fuel Efficient Machines
Strategies to Reduce the Demand for Gasoline by Consumers
Alternative Fuel Vehicles
Alternative Fuels
Summary
References
Selected Environmental Laws
Selected Professional Journals
Radiation
Introduction
Understanding Radiation
Measurement of Radioactivity and Radiation Exposure
Sources of Ionizing Exposure
About CT scans
Geographical Sources
Radon
Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure
The Measurement of Radiation Exposure
Predicting the Effects of ionizing Radiation
Deterministic Effects
Threshold Effects
Nonthreshold Effects
Cumulative Effects
Public Health Interventions
Preventive Measures to Control Radiation Exposure
Solar Radiation
Ultraviolet Radiation
About Sunburns and "Tans"
Lasers
Nonionizing Radiation
Visible Light
Infrared light
Measurement of Light
Electromagnetic Fields
Static electromagnetic fields
Pulsed electromagnetic fields
Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields
Potential Risk and Standards for Electromagnetic Radiofrequencies
Acoustic Sound
Noise and Hearing Loss
Ultrasound
Public Health Agencies Regulating Radiation
Summary
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Selected Professional Journals
Additional Readings
Food Safety Concerns
Introduction
Efforts Toward Food Quality
Food-Borne Illnesses
Food Handling
Food Irradiation
Food Purchase Selections: Let the Buyer Beware!
Food Additives
Food Sensitivities
Sulfites
Monosodium Glutamate
Questionable Ingredients
Meats
Produce
Hormones in Meat
Antibiotics in Meat
Genetically Engineered Foods
Food Recalls
Food Perishability
Food Storage
Refrigeration
Pantry
Sanitation Principles
Food Preparation
Thawing Foods
Precooked Foods
Heating Foods
Serving Food
Storing Leftovers
Restaurant Inspections
Summary
References
Assignments
Laws
Professional Journals
Additional Reading
Waste Management
Introduction
What Is Solid Waste?
Ways to Dispose of Solid Waste
Land Disposal
Incineration
Ways of Reducing Solid Waste
Innovative Approaches to Waste Management
Human Waste
Management of Human Waste in Rural Areas
Sewage Disposal in Urban Areas
Scrap Metal and Bulk Waste
Regulating Waste Disposal
Hazardous Waste
Types of Hazardous Waste
Commercial Hazardous Waste
Household Hazardous Waste
Medical Waste
A New Kind of Waste: E-waste
Regulation and Transportation of Hazardous Waste
Nuclear Waste
High-Level Radioactive Waste
Low-Level Radioactive Waste
Regulation of Nuclear Waste Storage, Transportation, and Disposal
Summary
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Professional Journals
Additional Reading
Housing and Indoor Environments
Introduction
Finding a Good Place to Live
Basic Shelter Needs
Location
Community Government and Services
The Structure
The Living Space
Lighting
Temperature
Humidity
Ventilation
Sanitation
Indoor Air Pollution
Physical Indoor Air Pollutants
Asbestos
Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)
Radon
Chemical Indoor Air Pollutants
Carbon Monoxide
Lead
Mercury
Pesticides
Volatile Organic Compounds
Other Toxic Indoor Air Pollution Sources
Biological Indoor Air Pollutants
Molds
Mildew
Dust
Pollen
Pets
Allergens
Hypersensitive Individuals
Indoor Air Treatments
Reducing the Effects of Indoor Pollution
Summary
References
Assignments
Laws
Selected Professional Journals
Additional Reading
Injury and Safety Issues
Introduction
History of Injury Prevention
Ergonomics
William Haddon
Ralph Nader
The Rise of Public Health Initiatives
Intentional Injuries
Suicide and Homicide
Abusive Behavior
Unintentional Injuries
Motor Vehicle Accidents
Home Safety
Product Safety
School Safety
Playground Hazards
Recreational Activity and Safety
Walking, Jogging, and Biking
Horseback Riding
Swimming
Injury Prevention
Summary
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Selected Professional Journals
Additional Reading
Occupational Health and Safety
Introduction
Rise of Occupational Safety and Industrial Hygiene
Early History
Industrial Revolution
Child Labor
Occupational Health and Safety Legislation
Occupational Hazards
Agriculture
Migrant Workers
Work Site Hazards
Air Contaminants
Physical Hazards
Chemical Hazards
Biological Hazards
Ergonomic Hazards
Industrial Hygienists
Safety Specialists
Summary
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Selected Journals
Additional Reading
Disaster Preparedness
Introduction
Goals for Disaster Response
Climatological Disasters
Heat Waves and Drought
Thunderstorms, Lightning, and Hail
Tornadoes
National Weather Service Messages
Hurricanes
Winter Storms
Geological Disasters
Flooding
Landslides and Avalanches
Earthquakes
Volcanic Eruptions
Man-made Disasters
Forest Fires
Industrial Accidents
Transportation Accidents
Disaster Assistance
Terrorism
History of Terrorist Events
War
National Security Protection Against Terrorism and War
Public Health Efforts in Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response
Disaster Preparedness
Summary
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Additional Reading
Selected Journals
Environmental and Public Health Challenges
Introduction
Public Perceptions of the Environment
Department of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Public Health Concerns
Environmental Health Laws
The Environmental Movement
Public Health Challenges
The Microbial Model
The Behavioral Model
The Ecological Model
Urbanization and Local Issues
The Healthy Cities Program
The Promise of a Green Future
Green Architecture
Green Energy and Transportation
Wilderness Preservation
City Planning and Zoning
Building Codes
Public Health and Community Safety
Sustainable Development
Past Failures
Past Successes
Future Focus
Summary
References
Assignments
Selected Environmental Laws
Selected Professional Journals
Additional Reading
Index
Photo Credits
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