Dental Radiography Principles and Techniques

ISBN-10: 0721615759

ISBN-13: 9780721615752

Edition: 3rd 2006 (Revised)

List price: $72.95
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Inside youll find the essential principles of radiation and the technical skills necessary for the safe and effective use of radiation in the dental office. The book serves as both a textbook and training manual by providing comprehensive coverage of basic theory and complete technical instruction. Procedures are presented in a detailed step-by-step format with accompanying illustrations, rationales, and charting notes. Includes a new interactive student CD-ROM. Chapters are short with topics separated into easy-to-digest sections. Content is divided into six parts, covering all necessary aspects of dental radiography Step-by-step procedures throughout the chapters include rationales and charting notes along with essential illustrations and photos to demonstrate techniques properly. Quiz questions for each chapter help students assess knowledge and comprehension. Example boxes are used throughout the chapters to further explain a process or why it is performed a certain way. An interactive CD-ROM, included in every book, features a variety of interactive exercises such as radiograph mounting and mastering steps in equipment assembly; animations to visualize key concepts of how digital radiographs are produced, panoramic positioning errors, and what happens within the dental x-ray tube; and patient case studies in the same format as the national board exam. New chapters on Descriptive Terminology and Interpretation of Restorations, Dental Materials, and Foreign Objects to ensure students know these topics inside and out, before theyre tested on them when they take the national board exam.
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Book details

List price: $72.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Elsevier - Health Sciences Division
Publication date: 12/5/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 544
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 3.344
Language: English

Radiation Basics
Radiation History
Dentistry and X-radiation
Basic Terminology
Importance of Dental Radiographs
Discovery of X-radiation
Roentgen and the Discovery of X-rays
Earlier Experimentation
Pioneers in Dental X-radiation
History of Dental X-ray Equipment
History of Dental X-ray Film
History of Dental Radiographic Techniques
Radiation Physics
Fundamental Concepts
Atomic and Molecular Structure
Ionization, Radiation, and Radioactivity
Ionizing Radiation
X-ray Machine
Component Parts
X-ray Tube
X-ray Generating Apparatus
Production of X-radiation
Production of Dental X-rays
Types of X-rays Produced
Definitions of X-radiation
Interactions of X-radiation
No Interaction
Absorption of Energy and Photoelectric Effect
Compton Scatter
Coherent Scatter
Radiation Characteristics
X-ray Beam Quality
Voltage and Kilovoltage
Kilovoltage Peak
Film Density and Kilovoltage Peak
Film Contrast and Kilovoltage Peak
Exposure Time and Kilovoltage Peak
X-ray Beam Quantity
Amperage and Milliamperage
Film Density and Milliamperage
Exposure Time and Milliamperage
X-ray Beam Intensity
Kilovoltage Peak
Exposure Time
Inverse Square Law
Half-Value Layer
Radiation Biology
Radiation Injury
Mechanisms of Injury
Theories of Radiation Injury
Dose-Response Curve
Stochastic and Nonstochastic Radiation Effects
Sequence of Radiation Injury
Determining Factors for Radiation Injury
Radiation Effects
Short-Term and Long-Term Effects
Somatic and Genetic Effects
Radiation Effects on Cells
Radiation Effects on Tissues and Organs
Radiation Measurements
Units of Measurement
Exposure Measurement
Dose Measurement
Dose Equivalent Measurement
Measurements Used in Dental Radiography
Radiation Risks
Sources of Radiation Exposure
Risk and Risk Estimates
Dental Radiation and Exposure Risks
Patient Exposure and Dose
Risk versus Benefit of Dental Radiographs
Radiation Protection
Patient Protection
Before Exposure
During Exposure
After Exposure
Operator Protection
Protection Guidelines
Radiation Monitoring
Radiation Exposure Guidelines
Radiation Safety Legislation
Maximum Permissible Dose
Maximum Accumulated Dose
ALARA Concept
Radiation Protection and Patient Education
Equipment, Film, and Processing Basics
Dental X-ray Equipment
Dental X-ray Machines
Performance Standards
Types of Machines
Component Parts
Dental X-ray Film Holders and Beam Alignment Devices
Types of Film Holders
Types of Beam Alignment Devices
Dental X-ray Film
Dental X-ray Film Composition and Latent Image
Film Composition
Latent Image Formation
Types of Dental X-ray film
Intraoral Film
Extraoral Film
Duplicating Film
Film Storage and Protection
Dental X-ray Image Characteristics
Dental X-ray Image Characteristics
Visual Characteristics
Geometric Characteristics
Dental X-ray Film Processing
Film Processing
Film Processing Fundamentals
Film Processing Steps
Film Processing Solutions
The Darkroom
Room Requirements
Equipment Requirements
Manual Film Processing
Equipment Accessories
Step-by-Step Procedures
Care and Maintenance
Automatic Film Processing
Component Parts of Automatic Processor
Step-by-Step Procedures
Care and Maintenance
Film Duplication
Equipment Requirements
Step-by-Step Procedures
Processing Problems and Solutions
Time and Temperature
Chemical Contamination
Film Handling
Quality Assurance in the Dental Office
Quality Control Tests
Equipment and Supplies
Film Processing
Quality Administration Procedures
Operator Competence
Dental Radiographer Basics
Dental Radiographs and the Dental Radiographer
Dental Radiographs
Importance of Dental Radiographs
Uses of Dental Radiographs
Benefits of Dental Radiographs
Information Found on Dental Radiographs
The Dental Radiographer
Knowledge and Skill Requirements
Duties and Responsibilities
Professional Goals
Patient Relations and the Dental Radiographer
Interpersonal Skills
Communication Skills
Facilitation Skills
Patient Relations
First Impressions and Patient Relations
Chairside Manner and Patient Relations
Attitude and Patient Relations
Patient Education and the Dental Radiographer
Importance of Patient Education
Methods of Patient Education
Common Questions and Answers
Necessity Questions
Exposure Questions
Safety Questions
Miscellaneous Questions
Legal Issues and the Dental Radiographer
Legal Issues and Dental Radiography
Federal and State Regulations
Licensure Requirements
Legal Issues and the Dental Patient
Risk Management
Malpractice Issues
Patient Records
Patients Who Refuse Dental Radiographs
Infection Control and the Dental Radiographer
Infection Control Basics
Rationale for Infection Control
Infection Control Terminology
Guidelines for Infection Control Practices
Protective Attire and Barrier Techniques
Handwashing and Care of Hands
Sterilization or Disinfection of Instruments
Cleaning and Disinfection of Dental Unit and Environmental Surfaces
Infection Control in Dental Radiography
Infection Control Procedures Used Before Exposure
Infection Control Procedures Used During Exposure
Infection Control Procedures Used After Exposure
Infection Control Procedures Used for Processing
Technique Basics
Introduction to Radiographic Examinations
Intraoral Radiographic Examination
Types of Intraoral Radiographic Examinations
Complete Mouth Radiographic Series
Diagnostic Criteria for Intraoral Radiographs
Extraoral Radiographic Examination
Prescribing of Dental Radiographs
Paralleling Technique
Basic Concepts
Principles of Paralleling Technique
Film Holders
Film for Paralleling Technique
Rules for Paralleling Technique
Step-by-Step Procedures
Patient Preparation
Equipment Preparation
Exposure Sequence for Film Placements
Film Placement for Paralleling Technique
Modifications in Paralleling Technique
Shallow Palate
Bony Growths
Mandibular Premolar Region
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages of Paralleling Technique
Disadvantages of Paralleling Technique
Bisecting Technique
Basic Concepts
Principles of Bisecting Technique
Film Stabilization
Film for Bisecting Technique
Angulation of Position-Indicating Device
Rules for Bisecting Technique
Step-by-Step Procedures
Patient Preparation
Equipment Preparation
Exposure Sequence for Film Placements
Film Placement
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages of Bisecting Technique
Disadvantages of Bisecting Technique
Bite-Wing Technique
Basic Concepts
Principles of Bite-Wing Technique
Film Holder and Bite-Wing Tab
Film for Bite-Wing Technique
Angulation of Position-Indicating Device
Rules for Bite-Wing Technique
Step-by-Step Procedures
Patient Preparation
Equipment Preparation
Exposure Sequence for Film Placements
Film Placement for Bite-Wing Technique
Vertical Bite-Wings
Modifications of Bite-Wing Technique
Edentulous Spaces
Bony Growths
Exposure and Technique Errors
Film Exposure Errors
Exposure Problems
Time and Exposure Factor Problems
Technique Errors (Periapical Films)
Film Placement Problems
Angulation Problems
PID Alignment Problems
Technique Errors (Bite-Wing Films)
Film Placement Problems
Angulation Problems
PID Alignment Problems
Miscellaneous Technique Errors
Film Bending
Film Creasing
Double Exposure
Reversed Film
Occlusal and Localization Techniques
Occlusal Technique
Basic Concepts
Step-by-Step Procedures
Localization Techniques
Basic Concepts
Step-by-Step Procedures
Panoramic Radiography
Basic Concepts
Purpose and Use
Step-by-Step Procedures
Equipment Preparation
Patient Preparation
Patient Positioning
Common Errors
Patient Preparation Errors
Patient Positioning Errors
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages of Panoramic Radiography
Disadvantages of Panoramic Radiography
Extraoral Radiography
Basic Concepts
Purpose and Use
Step-by-Step Procedures
Equipment Preparation
Patient Preparation
Patient Positioning
Extraoral Projection Techniques
Lateral Jaw Radiography
Skull Radiography
Temporomandibular Joint Radiography
Cone-Beam Technology
Digital Radiography
Basic Concepts
Purpose and Use
Radiation Exposure
Types of Digital Imaging
Direct Digital Imaging
Indirect Digital Imaging
Step-by-Step Procedures
Sensor Preparation
Sensor Placement
Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages of Digital Radiography
Disadvantages of Digital Radiography
Radiography of Patients with Special Needs
Patients with the Gag Reflex
Patient Management
Extreme Cases of Gag Reflex
Patients with Disabilities
Physical Disabilities
Developmental Disabilities
Patients with Specific Dental Needs
Pediatric Patients
Endodontic Patients
Edentulous Patients
Normal Anatomy and Film Mounting Basics
Normal Anatomy: Intraoral Films
Definitions of General Terms
Types of Bone
Prominences of Bone
Spaces and Depressions in Bone
Miscellaneous Terms
Normal Anatomic Landmarks
Bony Landmarks of the Maxilla
Bony Landmarks of the Mandible
Normal Tooth Anatomy
Tooth Structure
Supporting Structures
Film Mounting and Viewing
Film Mounting
Basic Concepts
Normal Anatomy and Film Mounting
Film Mounting Methods
Step-by-Step Procedure
Film Viewing
Basic Concepts
Step-by-Step Procedure
Normal Anatomy: Panoramic Films
Normal Anatomic Landmarks
Bony Landmarks of Maxilla and Surrounding Structures
Bony Landmarks of Mandible and Surrounding Structures
Air Space Images Seen on Panoramic Radiographs
Soft Tissue Images Seen on Panoramic Radiographs
Radiographic Interpretation Basics
Introduction to Radiographic Interpretation
Basic Concepts
Interpretation Terminology
Importance of Interpretation
Who Interprets Radiographs?
Interpretation versus Diagnosis
When and Where Are Radiographs Interpreted?
Interpretation and Patient Education
Descriptive Terminology
Definition and Uses
What Is Descriptive Terminology?
Why Use Descriptive Terminology?
Descriptive Terminology versus Diagnosis
Review of Basic Terms
Radiograph versus X-ray
Radiolucent versus Radiopaque
Terms Used to Describe Radiolucent Lesions
Terms Used to Describe Radiopaque Lesions
Identification of Restorations, Dental Materials, and Foreign Objects
Identification of Restorations
Amalgam Restorations
Gold Restorations
Stainless Steel and Chrome Crowns
Post and Core Restorations
Porcelain Restorations
Composite Restorations
Acrylic Restorations
Identification of Materials Used in Dentistry
Materials Used in Restorative Dentistry
Materials Used in Endodontics
Materials Used in Prosthodontics
Materials Used in Orthodontics
Materials Used in Oral Surgery
Identification of Miscellaneous Objects
Eyeglasses and Napkin Chain
Interpretation of Dental Caries
Description of Caries
Detection of Caries
Clinical Examination
Radiographic Examination
Interpretation of Caries
Interpretation Tips
Factors Influencing Caries Interpretation
Radiographic Classification of Caries
Interproximal Caries
Occlusal Caries
Buccal and Lingual Caries
Root Surface Caries
Recurrent Caries
Rampant Caries
Interpretation of Periodontal Disease
Description of the Periodontium
Description of Periodontal Disease
Detection of Periodontal Disease
Clinical Examination
Radiographic Examination
Radiographic Interpretation of Periodontal Disease
Bone Loss
Classification of Periodontal Disease
Predisposing Factors
Interpretation of Trauma and Pulpal and Periapical Lesions
Radiographic Changes Caused by Trauma
Radiographic Changes Caused by Resorption
External Resorption
Internal Resorption
Radiographic Features of Pulpal Lesions
Pulpal Sclerosis
Pulpal Obliteration
Pulp Stones
Radiographic Features of Periapical Lesions
Periapical Radiolucencies
Periapical Radiopacities
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