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Ecology of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

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ISBN-10: 0691049297

ISBN-13: 9780691049298

Edition: 2000

Authors: Cindy Lee Van Dover

List price: $105.00
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Description:

Teeming with weird and wonderful life--giant clams and mussels, tubeworms, "eyeless" shrimp, and bacteria that survive on sulfur--deep-sea hot-water springs are found along rifts where sea-floor spreading occurs. The theory of plate tectonics predicted the existence of these hydrothermal vents, but they were discovered only in 1977. Since then the sites have attracted teams of scientists seeking to understand how life can thrive in what would seem to be intolerable or extreme conditions of temperature and fluid chemistry. Some suspect that these vents even hold the key to understanding the very origins of life. Here a leading expert provides the first authoritative and comprehensive account…    
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Book details

List price: $105.00
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Publication date: 3/26/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 448
Size: 6.10" wide x 9.13" long x 1.06" tall
Weight: 1.430
Language: English

Preface
Acknowledgments
The Non-Vent Deep Sea
The Physical Environment in the Deep Sea
The Deep-Sea Fauna
Deep-Sea Diversity
Biogeography and Population Genetics
Biochemical and Physiological Adaptations to the Deep-Sea Environment
Benthopelagic Coupling between Surface Productivity and the Deep Sea
Rates of Biological Processes in the Deep Sea
The Vent Contrast
Geological Setting ot Hydrothermal Vents
What Are Mid-Ocean Ridges?
How Spreading Rates for Ridge Axes Are Determined
Spreading Rates
Segmentation
Magma Supply and Spreading Rate
Back-Arc and Fore-Are Spreading Centers
Seamounts
Volcanic and Tectonic Seafloor Features
Crustal Structure
Volcanic and Tectonic Fissures
Lava Lakes, Drainback. Features, and Lava Pillars
Axial Boundary Faults
Lava Flow Morphologies
Emplacement of Lavas and the Time-Course of a Diking Event
Lava Dating
Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Fields
Missing Heat and Hydrothermal Cooling at Ridge Crests
Sulfide Deposits
Morphological Variations
Columnar Chimneys and Black Smokers
White Smokers
Beehives and Flanges
Complex Sulfide Mounds
Weathering of Seafloor Sulfides
Dimensions and Ages of Active Hydrothermal Fields
Low-Temperature Diffuse Flows
Sediment-Hosted Hydrothermal Systems
Ophiolites
Appendix
References
Chemical and Physical Properties of Vent Fluids
Submarine Hydrothermal Circulation Cells: High-Temperature Reaction Zones
Phase Separation
Flow Rates, Transit Times, and Temperature of Formation
End-Member Fluids
Composition 80 Basic Controls on Chemistry
Magmatic Inputs
Evolution of Vent-Fluid Chemistry
Back-Arc Fluid Chemistries
Thermal Radiation
Axial Low-Temperature, Diffuse-Flow Chemistry
Flow Rates, Temperature, and Temperature Variability
Silicate
Sulfide
Oxygen
Profiles of Oxygen, Sulfide, Silicate, and Temperature
Methane, Manganese, and Iron
Nitrogen and Phosphorus Compounds
Flank Low-Temperature Fluids
Global Fluxes and the Hydrothermal Influence on Ocean Chemistry and Currents
References
Hydrothermal Plumes
Anatomy of a Black-Smoker Plume
Orifice
Buoyant Plume
Effluent Layer
Megaplumes
Spatial and Temporal Distributions of Plumes
Relationship between Plume Distributions and Geophysical Parameters
Plume-DTiven Mesoscale Circulation
Plume Vortices
Advection and Downwelling
Basin-Scale Circulation
Diffuse-Flow Plumes
References
Microbial Ecology
Autotrophic Organisms at Vents
Nomenclature
Aerobic and Anaerobic Chemoautotrophy at Vents
Methanotrophy
Carbon Dioxide Fixation
Mixotrophy
Net Chemoautotrophic Production in Free-Living Hydrothermal-Vent Microorganisms
Alternatives to Chemoautotrophy
Organic Thennogenesis Hypothesis
Detrital Thennal Alteration Hypothesis
Ecology of Free-Living Microorganisms
Microbial Habitats
Hyperthen-nophiles and Superthermophiles
Flange Microbial Ecology and the Archaea
Microorganisms in Black-Smoker Fluids
The "Endeavour Model"
The Subsurface Biosphere
Plume Microbiology
Suspended Microbial Populations
Microbial Community Composition
Dominance of a Single