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Nuclear Medicine Physics The Basics

ISBN-10: 068330092X

ISBN-13: 9780683300925

Edition: 5th 1997 (Revised)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra

List price: $49.95
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his is an introductory book on physics and related basic sciences of nuclear medicine. The book is designed primarily for residents in radiology and nuclear medicine and students studying nuclear medicine technology
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Book details

List price: $49.95
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 1997
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 198
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long
Weight: 0.792
Language: English

Prefacep. xiii
Basic Reviewp. 1
Matter, Elements, and Atomsp. 1
Simplified Structure of an Atomp. 1
Moleculesp. 2
Binding Energy, Ionization, and Excitationp. 2
Forces or Fieldsp. 3
Electromagnetic Forcesp. 3
Characteristic X-Rays and Auger Electronsp. 4
Interchangeability of Mass and Energyp. 5
Nuclides and Radioactive Processesp. 7
Nuclides and Their Classificationp. 7
Nuclear Structure and Excited States of a Nuclidep. 7
Radionuclides and Stability of Nuclidesp. 8
Radioactive Series or Chainp. 9
Radioactive Processes and Conservation Lawsp. 9
Alpha Decayp. 9
Beta Decayp. 10
Gamma Decay or Isomeric Transitionp. 12
Decay Schemesp. 13
Radioactivity: Law of Decay, Half-Life, and Statisticsp. 20
Radioactivity: Definition, Units, and Dosagep. 20
Law of Decayp. 21
Calculation of the Mass of a Radioactive Samplep. 21
Specific Activityp. 22
The Exponential Law of Decayp. 22
Half-Lifep. 23
Problems on Radioactive Decayp. 24
Average Life (T[subscript av])p. 25
Biological Half-Lifep. 25
Effective Half-Lifep. 26
Statistics of Radioactive Decayp. 27
Poisson Distribution, Standard Deviation, and Percent Standard Deviationp. 27
Propagation of Statistical Errorsp. 28
Room Backgroundp. 29
Production of Radionuclidesp. 31
Methods of Radionuclide Productionp. 31
Reactor-Produced Radionuclidesp. 31
Accelerator- or Cyclotron-Produced Radionuclidesp. 32
Fission-Produced Radionuclidesp. 33
General Considerations in the Production of Radionuclidesp. 33
Production of Short-Lived Radionuclides, Using a Generatorp. 34
Principles of a Generatorp. 34
Description of a Typical Generatorp. 36
Radiopharmaceuticalsp. 40
Design Considerations for a Radiopharmaceuticalp. 40
Selection of a Radionuclidep. 40
Selection of a Chemicalp. 41
Development of a Radiopharmaceuticalp. 41
Chemical Studiesp. 41
Animal Distribution and Toxicity Studiesp. 42
Human or Clinical Studiesp. 42
Quality Control of a Radiopharmaceuticalp. 42
Radionuclidic Purityp. 42
Radiochemical Purityp. 43
Chemical Purityp. 43
Sterilityp. 43
Apyrogenicityp. 43
Labeling of Radiopharmaceuticals with Technetium-99mp. 43
Technetium-99m-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticalsp. 44
Technetium-99m Pertechnetate ([superscript 99m]TcO[superscript - subscript 4])p. 44
Technetium-99m-Labeled Sulfur Colloidp. 44
Technetium-99m-Labeled Macroaggregated Albumin ([superscript 99m]Tc MAA)p. 45
Technetium-99m-Labeled Polyphosphate, Pyrophosphate, and Diphosphonatep. 45
Technetium-99m-Labeled Human Serum Albuminp. 45
Technetium-99m-Labeled Red Cellsp. 45
Technetium-99m-Labeled 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA)p. 46
Technetium-99m-Labeled Diethylenetriamine Pentaacetic Acid (DTPA)p. 46
Technetium-99m-Labeled Glucoheptonatep. 46
Technetium-99m-Labeled Mertiatide (MAG3)p. 46
Technetium-99m-Labeled 2,6-Dimethyl Acetanilide Iminodiacetic Acid (HIDA) and Related Compounds (Diethyl-IDA, PIPIDA, and DISIDA)p. 46
Technetium-99m-Labeled Sestamibi (Cardiolite)p. 46
Technetium-99m-Labeled Teboroxime (Cardiotec)p. 47
Technetium-99m-Labeled Tetrofosmin (Myoview)p. 47
Technetium-99m-Labeled Brain Imaging Agents (Exametazime [Ceretec], Hexamethylpropyleneamine Oxime [HMPAO], and Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer [ECD])p. 47
Radioiodine-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals ([superscript 131]I and [superscript 123]I)p. 47
Iodine-131- or Iodine-123-Labeled Sodium Iodidep. 48
Other Iodine-123-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticalsp. 48
Compounds Labeled with Other Radionuclidesp. 48
Gallium-67 Citratep. 48
Thallous-201 Chloridep. 48
Chromium-51-Labeled Red Cellsp. 49
Indium-111-Labeled DTPAp. 49
Indium-111-Labeled Platelets and Leukocytesp. 49
Indium-111-Labeled DTPA Pentetreotide (OctreoScan)p. 49
Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibodies and Synthetic Peptidesp. 49
Radioactive Gases and Aerosolsp. 50
Radiopharmeceuticals for PET Imagingp. 50
[superscript 18]FDG (2-deoxy-fluoro-D-glucose)p. 51
Therapeutic Uses of Radiopharmaceuticalsp. 51
Design of a Radiopharmaceutical for Therapeutic Usesp. 51
Problems and Usesp. 51
Misadministration of Radiopharmaceuticalsp. 52
Interaction of High-Energy Radiation With Matterp. 55
Interaction of Charged Particles (10 keV to 10 MeV)p. 55
Principal Mechanism of Interactionp. 55
Differences Between Lighter and Heavier Charged Particlesp. 55
Range R of a Charged Particlep. 56
Factors That Affect Range, Rp. 57
Bremsstrahlung Productionp. 57
Stopping Power (S)p. 57
Linear Energy Transfer (LET)p. 58
Difference Between LET and Stopping Power Sp. 58
Annihilation of Positronsp. 58
Interaction of x- or [gamma]-rays (10 keV to 10 MeV)p. 58
Attenuation and Transmission of X- or [gamma]-Raysp. 58
Attenuation Through Heterogeneous Mediump. 60
Mass Attenuation Coefficient, [mu] (mass)p. 60
Atomic Attenuation Coefficient, [mu] (atom)p. 60
Mechanisms of Interactionp. 61
Dependence of [mu] (mass) and [mu] (linear) on Zp. 63
Relative Importance of the Three Processesp. 64
Interaction of Neutronsp. 64
Radiation Dosimetryp. 66
General Comments on Radiation Dose Calculationsp. 66
Definitions and Unitsp. 66
Radiation Dose, Dp. 67
Radiation Dose Rate, dD/dtp. 67
Parameters or Data Neededp. 67
Calculation of the Radiation Dosep. 67
Rate of Energy Emissionp. 68
Rate of Energy Absorptionp. 68
Dose Rate, dD/dtp. 69
Average Dose, Dp. 70
Simplification of Radiation Dose Calculations Using "S" Factorp. 70
Some Illustrative Examplesp. 72
Radiation Doses in Routine Imaging Proceduresp. 74
Radiation Dose to a Fetusp. 74
Detection of High-Energy Radiationp. 77
What Do We Want to Know About Radiation?p. 77
Simple Detectionp. 77
Quantity of Radiationp. 77
Energy of the Radiationp. 77
Nature of Radiationp. 77
What Makes One Radiation Detector Better Than Another?p. 78
Intrinsic Efficiency or Sensitivityp. 78
Dead Time or Resolving Timep. 78
Energy Discrimination Capability or Energy Resolutionp. 79
Other Considerationsp. 79
Types of Detectorsp. 79
Gas-Filled Detectorsp. 79
Scintillation Detectors (Counters)p. 84
Semiconductor Detectorsp. 92
In Vitro Radiation Detectionp. 95
Overall Efficiency Ep. 95
Intrinsic Efficiencyp. 95
Geometric Efficiencyp. 95
Well-type NaI(Tl) Scintillation Detectors (Well Counters)p. 96
Liquid Scintillation Detectorsp. 98
Basic Componentsp. 99
Preparation of the Sample Detector Vialp. 100
Problems Arising in Sample Preparationp. 100
In Vivo Radiation Detection: Basic Problems, Probes, and Rectilinear Scannersp. 103
Basic Problemsp. 103
Collimationp. 103
Scatteringp. 104
Attenuationp. 106
Organ Uptake Probesp. 107
NaI(Tl) Detectorp. 107
Collimatorp. 107
Organ Imaging Devicesp. 107
Rectilinear Scannerp. 108
In Vivo Radiation Detection: Scintillation Camerap. 110
Scintillation Camerap. 110
Collimatorsp. 111
Detector, NaI(Tl) Crystalp. 114
Position Determining Circuit (x, y Coordinates)p. 115
Displayp. 117
Imaging with a Scintillation Camerap. 119
Interfacing with a Computer or All-digital Camerap. 120
Digitization in Generalp. 120
Digitization in the Scintillation Camerap. 121
Some Applications of Computersp. 122
Automatic Acquisition of Imagesp. 122
Display of Imagesp. 124
Analysis of the Imagesp. 124
Operational Characteristics and Quality Control of a Scintillation Camerap. 128
Quantitative Parameters for Measuring Spatial Resolutionp. 128
Point-Spread Function and FWHMp. 128
Modulation Transfer Functionp. 128
Resolution of an Imaging Chainp. 130
Quantitative Parameters for Measuring Sensitivityp. 130
Point Sensitivity S[subscript P]p. 130
Line Sensitivity S[subscript L]p. 130
Plane Sensitivity S[subscript A]p. 130
Factors Affecting Spatial Resolution and Sensitivity of an Imagerp. 131
Scintillation Camerap. 131
Loss of Spatial Resolution Resulting from Septal Penetrationp. 132
Variation in Spatial Resolution with Depthp. 132
Uniformity and High Count Rate Performance of a Scintillation Camerap. 132
Uniformityp. 133
High Count Rate Performancep. 134
Quality Control of Imaging Devicesp. 135
Scintillation Camerap. 135
Detectability or Final Contrast in an Imagep. 139
Parameters that Affect Detectability of a Lesionp. 139
Object Contrastp. 139
Spatial Resolution and Sensitivity of an Imaging Devicep. 140
Statistical (Quantum) Noisep. 140
Projection of Volume Distribution into Areal Distributionp. 142
Compton Scattering of [gamma]-Raysp. 142
Attenuationp. 143
Object Motionp. 143
Display Parametersp. 143
Contrast-Detail Curvep. 143
Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) Curvep. 144
Emission Computed Tomographyp. 146
Principles of Transverse Tomographyp. 146
Considerations in Data Acquisitionp. 146
Reconstruction of the Cross Sectionp. 148
Single-photon Emission Computed Tomographyp. 149
Data Acquisition with a Scintillation Camerap. 149
Collimatorsp. 150
Attenuation Correctionp. 151
Scatter Correctionp. 151
Resolution Correctionp. 152
Other Requirements or Sources of Errorp. 153
Positron Emission Tomographyp. 153
Why PET?p. 153
Principles of PETp. 153
PET Instrumentationp. 156
PET-CT and PET-SPECT Instrumentp. 157
High-energy SPECT and PET with a Scintillation Camerap. 159
Biological Effects of Radiation and Risk Evaluation from Radiation Exposurep. 160
Mechanism of Biological Damagep. 160
Factors Affecting Biological Damagep. 160
Radiation Dosep. 160
Dose Ratep. 161
LET or Type of Radiationp. 161
Type of Tissuep. 161
Amount of Tissuep. 162
Rate of Cell Turnoverp. 162
Biological Variationp. 162
Chemical Modifiersp. 162
Biological Effect, Equivalent Dose, and Dose Equivalentp. 162
Equivalent Dosep. 162
Dose Equivalentp. 162
Deleterious Effects in Humansp. 163
Acute Effectsp. 163
Late Effectsp. 163
Radiation Effects in the Fetusp. 164
Different Radiation Exposures and the Concept of Effective Dose or Effective Dose Equivalentp. 164
Sources of Radiation Exposurep. 165
Methodology for Comparison of Different Exposuresp. 165
Effective Doses in Nuclear Medicine and Comparison with Other Sources of Exposurep. 166
Methods of Safe Handling of Radionuclides and Pertaining Rules and Regulationsp. 168
Principles of Reducing Exposure from External Sourcesp. 168
Timep. 168
Distancep. 169
Shieldingp. 169
Avoiding Internal Contaminationp. 170
The Radioactive Patientp. 171
Rules and Regulationsp. 171
U.S. Regulatory Agenciesp. 171
Exposure or Dose Limits: Annual Limit on Intake and Derived Air Concentrationp. 171
ALARA Principlep. 172
Types of Licensesp. 172
Radiation Safety Committee and Radiation Safety Officerp. 172
Personnel Monitoringp. 173
Receipt, Use, and Disposal of Radionuclidesp. 173
Control and Labeling of Areas Where Radionuclides are Stored and/or Usedp. 173
Contamination Survey and Radiation-Level Monitoringp. 174
Receiving and Shipping (Transport) of Radioactive Packagesp. 174
Accidental Radioactive Spillsp. 174
Appendix A: Physical Characteristics of Some Radionuclides of Interest in Nuclear Medicinep. 177
Appendix B: CGS and SI Unitsp. 181
Appendix C: Exponential Tablep. 183
Appendix D: Radionuclides of Interest in Nuclear Medicinep. 185
Appendix E: Organ Masses of a Standard Manp. 187
Answersp. 189
Suggestions for Further Readingp. 195
Indexp. 197
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.