Fundamentals of Reasoning : A Logic Book

ISBN-10: 053456108X

ISBN-13: 9780534561086

Edition: 4th 2002

Authors: Robert M. Johnson

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The predominant strategy of this text is to move from the simple to the complex. It includes topics such as categorical and sentential logic, informal fallacies, inductive logic, and extended arguments. With a non-technical approach, this book leads students step-by-step through simple demonstrations and then on to more complex material as their comfort level increases. Well designed examples, sample problems, explanatory charts and diagrams, and exercises abound.
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Book details

Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 8/28/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.386
Language: English

Prefacep. xi
Logic and Argumentp. 1
Logic Definedp. 1
Statementsp. 3
Identifying Statementsp. 5
Argument Definedp. 7
Argument Formp. 10
Diagraming Argumentsp. 12
Diagraming Argumentsp. 15
Composing Argumentsp. 16
Supplying Missing Parts: Enthymemesp. 17
Enthymemes: Missing Premises and Conclusionsp. 19
Recognizing Real Argumentsp. 20
Interpretation and the Principle of Charityp. 23
Recognizing Real Argumentsp. 24
Summaryp. 26
Review Questionsp. 27
Discussion Questionsp. 28
Infotrac Assignmentp. 28
Good Argument, Deductive Validity, and Inductive Strengthp. 29
Good Argumentsp. 29
Inferential Support: Does the Conclusion Follow?p. 30
Deductive Validity Definedp. 33
Deductive Validity
Does the Conclusion Follow Necessarily?p. 35
Inductive Strength
Does the Conclusion Follow Probably?p. 36
Validity and Logical Formp. 37
Validity and Logical Formp. 42
More Logical Formp. 43
Truth, Validity, and Good Argumentp. 44
What, if Anything, Is Wrong with This Argument?p. 46
Summaryp. 48
Review Questionsp. 48
Discussion Questionsp. 49
Infotrac Assignmentp. 49
Categorical Logic Part Ip. 50
Introductionp. 50
Categories and Reasoningp. 52
The Four Categorical Formsp. 54
Categorical Formsp. 56
Change the Qualityp. 57
Change the Quantityp. 57
Venn Diagramsp. 58
Diagramming with Two Categoriesp. 59
Drawing Venn Diagramsp. 61
Reading Venn Diagramsp. 62
Recognizing Simple Inferencesp. 63
Recognizing Simple Inferencesp. 63
The Squares of Oppositionp. 64
The Traditional Square of Oppositionp. 65
Inferences on the Traditional Squarep. 68
Inferences on the Traditional Square of Oppositionp. 72
More Inferencesp. 73
Quick Check on the Squarep. 73
The Modern Square of Oppositionp. 74
Inferences on the Modern Square of Oppositionp. 78
The Operationsp. 79
The Operations: Equivalencesp. 86
Negating Terms: Contradictories and Contrariesp. 86
Operationsp. 91
What Operation?p. 92
Valid or Invalid?p. 93
Simplifying with Operationsp. 93
Review Questionsp. 94
Discussion Questionsp. 95
Categorical Logic Part IIp. 97
Translating into Categorical Formp. 97
Translating Guidep. 98
Translatingp. 108
Translatingp. 109
The Categorical Syllogismp. 109
Testing Validity with Venn Diagramsp. 110
The Barp. 113
Making an Existential Assumptionp. 114
Diagramming with Three Circlesp. 115
Reading Venn Diagramsp. 116
Testing Validity with Venn Diagramsp. 116
Special Cases for the Syllogismp. 117
Valid or Invalid?p. 126
Soritesp. 126
Summaryp. 128
Review Questionsp. 129
Discussion Questionsp. 130
Truth-functional Logic Part Ip. 131
Introductionp. 131
Statements and Operatorsp. 132
The Logical Operators Definedp. 134
The Symbols and Their Usesp. 136
Symbolic Translationp. 136
Symbols Used in Truth-functional Logicp. 136
Symbolic Translationp. 138
Grouping and the Scope of Operatorsp. 139
Symbolizing with Parentheses and Bracketsp. 140
Translating and Groupingp. 142
Special Cases for Translationp. 143
Variations on the Conjunction and Disjunctionp. 144
Variations on the Conditionalp. 146
Special Cases for Translationp. 149
More Symbolic Translationsp. 150
The Truth-Functionsp. 152
Constructing Truth Tablesp. 155
Truth Tables for the Operatorsp. 159
The Truth-values of Compoundsp. 159
Translating and Truth Tablesp. 159
Interpreting Symbolic Statementsp. 161
Review Questionsp. 161
Discussion Questionsp. 163
Truth-functional Logic Part IIp. 164
Truth Tables for Evaluating Argumentsp. 165
The Truth Table Methodp. 167
Indirect Truth Tablesp. 169
Indirect Truth Table Methodp. 172
Statements and Relationsp. 173
Types of Statements: Tautologies, Self-contradictions, and Contingenciesp. 173
Types of Relations: Equivalences and Contradictoriesp. 175
Tautologies, Self-contradictions, and Contingenciesp. 176
Equivalences and Contradictoriesp. 177
Summaryp. 177
Review Questionsp. 178
Discussion Questionsp. 179
Formal Deductionp. 180
Introductionp. 180
The rules of Inference: Group Ip. 181
The Validity of Rules of Inference, Group Ip. 187
Deduction with the Rules of Inference, Group Ip. 188
The Rules of Inference: Group IIp. 188
The Validity of Rules of Inference, Group IIp. 191
Complete the Deductionsp. 192
Rules of Inferencep. 194
Equivalencesp. 195
Rules of Inferencep. 200
Equivalencesp. 200
Equivalences and Rules of Inferencep. 201
More Deductionsp. 202
Symbolize and Deducep. 203
Review Questionsp. 205
Inductive Logicp. 206
Inductive Strengthp. 207
Inductive Generalizationp. 210
Summary: Inductive Generalizationp. 215
Inductive Generalizationp. 216
More Inductive Generalizationsp. 218
Causal Argumentsp. 220
Causal Statementsp. 220
The Senses of the Word 'Cause'p. 222
The Structure of Causal Relationshipsp. 223
Causal Structurep. 225
Describing Causesp. 227
Types of Causal Argumentsp. 227
Types of Causal Argumentsp. 229
Mill's Methodsp. 232
Summary: Mill's Methodsp. 239
Mill's Methodsp. 240
Argument from Analogyp. 243
Summary: Argument from Analogyp. 251
Arguments from Analogyp. 252
Summaryp. 255
Identifying Types of Argumentsp. 256
Identifying More Difficult Argumentsp. 257
Review Questionsp. 261
Discussion Questionsp. 262
Infotrac Assignmentp. 262
Informal Fallaciesp. 263
Appeal to Authorityp. 264
Appeal to the Peoplep. 265
Appeal to Forcep. 266
Appeal to Pityp. 267
Appeal to Ignorancep. 267
Ad Hominemp. 269
False Causep. 271
Slippery Slopep. 273
Either/Or Fallacyp. 274
Equivocationp. 276
Hasty Generalizationp. 277
Fallacy of Compositionp. 279
Fallacy of Divisionp. 280
False Analogyp. 281
Begging the Questionp. 284
Straw Manp. 285
Red Herringp. 287
Inconsistencyp. 288
Summaryp. 291
Identifying Fallaciesp. 292
More Informal Fallaciesp. 295
Composing Fallaciesp. 304
Review Questionsp. 305
Discussion Questionsp. 306
Evaluating Argumentsp. 307
A Procedure for Argument Evaluationp. 307
Exposing Real Argumentsp. 308
Omitting, Rewriting, and Paraphrasingp. 309
Omitting Sentencesp. 309
Rewriting Sentencesp. 314
Paraphrasingp. 318
Omitting, Rewriting, and Paraphrasingp. 321
More on Enthymemes: Plausible Interpretationsp. 327
Real Enthymemes: Missing Premises and Conclusionsp. 329
Examining Premisesp. 332
Empirical and Nonempirical Statementsp. 333
Empirical or Nonempirical?p. 336
More on Empirical and Nonempiricalp. 337
Sample Evaluationsp. 339
Sample Evaluation 1p. 339
Sample Evaluation 2p. 340
Evaluating Real Argumentsp. 342
Review Questionsp. 352
Discussion Questionsp. 353
Infotrac Assignmentp. 354
Answers to Selected Exercisesp. 355
Glossaryp. 405
Indexp. 413
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