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Educational Psychology A Practitioner-Researcher Model of Teaching

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ISBN-10: 0534557015

ISBN-13: 9780534557010

Edition: 2001

Authors: Richard D. Parsons, Stephanie Lewis Hinson, Debbie Sardo-Brown

List price: $146.95
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Description:

While covering the basic concepts of psychological theory as it applies to education, child development, human learning and behavior, classroom management and assessment, this text is written from the point of view that teaching is both an art and a science. It is the first text to offer a practitioner-researcher model of teaching in which both pre-service and in-service teachers learn to integrate observational skills and hypothesis testing into their classroom teaching as a way of constantly checking research and theory against demonstrated results. Based on the practice of Action Research, it challenges students to become critical thinkers both as immediate consumers of teacher training courses and later as classroom teachers.
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Book details

List price: $146.95
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 8/3/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 640
Size: 8.00" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.134
Language: English

Preface
The Teacher as Practitioner and Researcher
Teaching: A Noble Profession
The Many Roles of a Teacher
Teaching: A Complex and Challenging Process
Teaching as Action
Teaching as Art and Science
Teacher as Decision Maker
Personal Theory Guiding Decision Making
Testing Personal Theories
Educational Psychology Theory and Research: Facilitating Teacher Decision Making
Methods of Educational Research
Statistics: A Language of Research
Teachers as Practitioners-Researchers
Reflective Teaching
Connections
Action Research
The Organizing Model for this Text
Action Research
Considering the Uniqueness of "Who" We Teach
Developmental Theory: Cognitive Development
What Is Development?
Why Is Understanding Development Important to Classroom Teachers?
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Basic Cognitive Concepts
Schema
Assimilation
Accommodation
Equilibration
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor Stage
Preoperational Stage
Concrete Operational Stage
Formal Operational Stage
Adolescent Social Cognition: The Work of Elkind
Personal Fable
Imaginary Audience
The Alternative Perspective of Vygotsky
Vygotsky's Views of Knowledge Construction
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Perspective
The Work of the Constructivists and the Neo-Piagetians
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory
Information-Processing Theories
Connections
Language Reflecting and Affecting Cognition
How Do We Acquire Language?
Language Development
Vocabulary and Meaning
Teaching and Language
Key Elements of the Phonics Approach
Action Research
Teaching Elements of the Whole Language Approach
Developmental Theory: Moral and Psychosocial Development
Moral Development
Piaget's Work
Kohlberg's Stages
An Alternative to Kohlberg
From Moral Reasoning to Moral Behavior: The Lickona Model
Cheating Behavior
Violence and Aggression
Psychosocial Development
Erikson's work
Marcia's Identity Status Theory
Other Psychosocial Issues
The Development of Self-Concept
Teen Pregnancy
Eating Disorders
Connections
Aids
Child Abuse
Divorce
Action Research
Suicide
Exceptionalities: Addressing Students' Unique Needs
Responding to the Educational Needs of Exceptional Students
The Role of Legislation
Full Inclusion versus a Continuum of Service
The Argument for Full Inclusion
Including Children with Exceptional Intelligence
Intelligence: A Singular Trait or Multiple Dimensions?
Assessing Intelligence
Mental Retardation
Causes of Mental Retardation
Implications for the Classroom Teacher
Action Research
Gifted and Talented Students
Defining Giftedness
Implications for the Classroom Teacher
Specific Learning Disabilities
Defining Specific Learning Disabilities
Dyslexia
Attention Deficit Disorder
Students with Physical Challenges and Chronic Health Problems
Neurological Disabilities
Chronic Diseases
Connections
Sensory Impairments
Hearing Impairment
Visual Impairment
Students with Communicative Disorders
Language Disorders
Speech Disorders
Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders
Defining Emotional/Behavioral Disorders
Implications for the Classroom Teacher
Student Diversity
Increasing Diversity in the United States
Difference: Just That ... Difference!
Cultural Diversity
How Will Your Students Vary Culturally?
Defining Culture
Addressing Cultural Diversity
Approaches to Multicultural Education
Experience, the Best Teacher
Race and Ethnicity
Race as a Microcultural Element
Race and Schooling
Connections
Recommendations
Linguistic Diversity
How Will Your Students Vary Linguistically?
Dispelling Myths
Facilitating American English
Characteristics of Linguistic Diversity in Students
General Recommendations
Learning Style
What Do We Know About Diversity in Learning Styles?
Action Research
Questions About Learning Styles and Teaching
Gender Role
What's the Debate Surrounding Gender Differences?
Similarities and Differences in Girls and Boys
Gender Typing Across the Ages
General Recommendations for Eliminating Gender Typing
Newer Controversies About Educating Girls and Boys
Socioeconomic Status
Defining Socioeconomic Status and Dispelling Myths
Dispelling Myths Surrounding Low SES Families
What Is the Relationship Between SES and School Achievement?
How Do We Address SES in School?
Recommendations for Teaching Poor Children
Embracing Diversity
The How of Teaching: Learning Theory and Instructional Practice
Learning Theories: Behaviorism
What Is Learning? An Overview of Learning Theories
Basic Premises of Learning Theories
Personal View of Learning
An Overview of Classic Theories
How Do Behaviorists Explain How We Learn?
A Look at Classical Conditioning
Association of Stimuli
Classical Conditioning in the Classroom
Stimulus Generalization
Connections
Stimulus Discrimination
Extinction
Focusing on Operant Conditioning
Skinner and Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement
Types of Reinforcement
Identifying Student Reinforcers
Delivering a Reinforcement
Operant Conditioning in the Classroom
Modifying Undesirable Behavior
Neobehaviorism
How Do Neobehaviorists Explain Learning?
Social Learning Theory
Action Research
Cognitive Behavior Modification
Cognitive Learning Theories
Foundations of Cognitive Learning Theory
Gestalt Psychology
Information Processing Model
The Multistore Model
Connections
Contemporary Cognitive Theories
Dual Coding Theory
Cognitive Behavior Modification
Schema Theory
Cognitive Structuralism
Bruner and Learning via Insight
Action Research
Ausubel and Meaningful Reception Learning
Organizing Strategies
Factors Affecting Rote and Meaningful Verbal Learning
The How of Teaching: Considering Issues of Motivation and Management
Motivation in the Classroom
What Is Motivation?
The Motivation-Learning Connection
Arousal: Necessary for Learning
Fear and Anxiety: Arousal as Detriment to Learning
Understanding Motivation
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
The Classroom: A Setting of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
Value and Expectancy
Value: An Essential Motivational Ingredient
Need/Drive Theory
Maslow's Hierarchy: Categorizing Needs and Motives
Implications and Directions for Teachers
Achievement Need: A Motivation of Special Interest to Teachers
Expectancy: A Second Motivational Ingredient
Self-Efficacy: Personal Expectations as Motivation
Motivation, Self-Efficacy, and Goal Setting
Attribution Theory
Achievement Motivation: Beliefs About Ability and Self-Worth
Motivational Sets Reflecting Self-Worth Orientations
Action Research
The Classroom: Impacting Student Motivation
Teacher Expectations: A Motivational Element
Classroom Climate: A Motivational Element
Connections
Classroom Ecology and Management
The Classroom: A Complex Environment
The Classroom--A Setting of Human Ecology
Creating a Positive Physical Environment
Fundamental Considerations
Creating a Positive Environment: Some Guiding Principles
Connections
Physical Environment: Congruency with Learning Activities
Creating a Positive Social Environment
Creating an Effective Learning Community
Entitavity
Cohesiveness
Matching Environment to Learning Style
Action Research
Classroom Management
Student or Classroom Management?
Classroom Management: More than Student Control
Goals of Classroom Management
The Need for "Schoolization"
Connections
Classroom Management: Reflecting Student Developmental Needs
Focusing on the Many as Well as the Few
Action Research
Prevention
Establishing Effective Learning Environments
Maintaining Effective Learning Environments
Intervention
Rules and Consequences Stopping Misbehavior
The Need to Stop and Train
Remediation
Developing Self-Control
Remediating Chronic Behavioral Problems
Developing Student Responsibility and Self-Control
The Gordon Model: Discipline Through Self-Control
Putting It All Together: Planning-Doing-Assessing
Planning: Essential to Instruction
Purposes of Planning
Classroom Planning: Reflecting the Mission of the Educational System
Factors Affecting Planning
Experienced Teacher Planning
Novice Teacher Planning
Instructional Objectives
Mager's Format for Writing Objectives
Gronlund's Approach for Writing Objectives
Domains and Taxonomies of Objectives
Connections
Cognitive Domain
Action Research
Affective Domain
Psychomotor Domain
Gagne's Outcomes of Instruction
Verbal Information
Intellectual Skills
Cognitive Strategies
Attitudes
Motor Skills
Effective Planning and Teaching
The Hunter Model
Alternatives to the Hunter Model
Learner-Centered Instruction: Metacognition and Constructivism
What Is Metacognition?
Definitions
Metacognition and Development
Comparing Novices and Experts
Teachers' Roles in Training Metacognition
Metacognitive Learning Strategies
Instructional Methods that Promote Metacognition
Constructivism: The "New" Movement
Rationale and Philosophical Implications
Modern-day Piaget
Constructivist Perspectives
Characterizing Constructivist Teaching and Classrooms
Action Research
Discovery Learning
Connections
Classroom Assessment
What Is Classroom Assessment?
Defining Assessment
Distinguishing Related Terms
Why Plan For Assessment?
Diagnosis
Instructional Effectiveness
Student Feedback
What Are the Different Kinds of Traditional Assessment?
Formative, Summative, and Diagnostic Assessment
Criterion- and Norm-Referenced Assessment
Assessment Origin
How Do Teacher-Made Tests Facilitate Assessment?
The Need for Instructional Objectives
Tables of Specification
Item Type
Issues and Concerns About Teacher-Made Tests
How Do Standardized Tests Facilitate Assessment?
Distinguishing Standardized Tests
Basic Considerations and Concepts in Assessment
Validity
Reliability
Interpreting Results
Ethics in Assessment
Special Concerns and Considerations with Standardized Tests
New Developments: Authentic Assessment
Connections
Performance Assessment
Portfolio Assessment
Action Research
Another Alternative Form of Assessment: Action Research
An Additional Concern About Assessment: Old and New
Glossary
References
Index
Credits