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Conducting Research in Psychology Measuring the Weight of Smoke

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ISBN-10: 0534532942

ISBN-13: 9780534532949

Edition: 3rd 2007

Authors: Hart Blanton, Brett W. Pelham

List price: $199.95
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Using humor and interesting examples that students can understand and relate to, authors Brett W. Pelham and Hart Blanton have written a research methods text that is both informative and comprehensive, but that your students will really ENJOY. This brief book includes hands-on activities that involve learning by doing, methodology exercises that encourage students to use their intuitions to understand research methods, and methodology problems that teach students to apply basic research principles to novel problems. This edition includes new chapters, numerous new studies and examples, and consistent pedagogy, to help students succeed.
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Book details

List price: $199.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 2/27/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.430

HART BLANTON grew up as the second of three children in a small town in Appalachian Virginia. Hart received his B.A. from Virginia Tech in 1990 and received his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1994. He worked on the second edition of this book while at SUNY, Albany, and the third edition while at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and the fourth edition while at the University of Connecticut. The bulk of his research is on social influence and social communication. He has taught courses in research methods, social psychology, statistics, the self, social comparison, and social influence. Most recently, he has become interested in what he terms "negative psychology." This he…    

Brett Pelham grew up as the second of six children near the small town of Rossville, Georgia. Brett received his B.S. from Berry College in 1983 and received his Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin in 1989. He began thinking about this book while teaching statistics at UCLA but got serious about doing so while teaching statistics at UB (in Buffalo, NY). After leaving UB, Brett worked for a year as a visiting professor in marketing at Georgetown University. He was then lucky enough to work for about two years as a senior research analyst at Gallup. This was followed by two not-so-lucky years as a Program Director at the National Science Foundation. At the time of this writing (in…    

How Do We Know?
Introduction: What This Text Is About
A Few Quick Tips for Using This Text
Preamble for Chapter 1
A Brief History of Human Knowledge
Metaphysical Systems
Physiology and the Physical Sciences
Experimental Psychology
The Four Canons of Science
Four Ways of Knowing About the World
Study Questions
How Do We Find Out? The Logic, Art, and Ethics of Scientific Discovery
The Logic of Scientific Discovery
Laws, Theories, and Hypotheses
The Science of Observation
Three Approaches to Hypothesis Testing
The Art of Scientific Discovery
Inductive Techniques for Developing Ideas
Deductive Techniques for Developing Ideas
The Ethics of Scientific Discovery
The Evolution of Ethical Guidelines
Modern Internal Review Boards and Risk-Benefit Analyses
A Primer in Ethical Guidelines
Study Questions
Moving From Fact to Truth: Validity, Reliability, and Measurement
Three Strange Stories
Internal Validity
External Validity
Construct Validity
Conceptual Validity
Reliability, Validity, and the "More Is Better" Rule
Measurement Scales
Nominal Scales
Ordinal Scales
Interval Scales
Ratio Scales
The Validity of Measurement Assumptions
Study Questions
Moving From Notions to Numbers: Psychological Measurement
Converting Notions to Numbers: The Two Major Challenges
The Judgment Phase
Walking a Mile in Someone Else's Moccasins: Perspective Taking
Wording Questions Well for Everyone: Being Clear and Simple
The Response Translation Phase
The Number of Scale Points
The Importance of Anchors
Putting It All Together: The EGWA Scale
Special Cases Require Special Scales
From Writing Questions to Creating Scales
Three Steps to Designing Questionnaires
Alternate Measures
Study Questions
How Do We Misinterpret? Common Threats to Validity
One Strange and Lucrative Story
People Are Different
Individual Differences and "Third Variables"
Selection Bias and Nonresponse Bias
People Change
History and Maturation
Regression Toward the Mean
The Process of Studying People Changes People
Testing Effects
Experimental Mortality (Attrition)
Participant Reaction Bias
Experimenter Bias
Moving From Three Threats to Two: Confounds and Artifacts
Confounds Versus Artifacts
Study Questions
Nonexperimental Research Designs
Describing the World of a Single Participant: Case Studies
Please Don't Try This at Home: The Case of Phineas Gage
My Life as a Dog: The Case of Stephen D.
Really, Really Late Night with Peter Tripp
The Life and Very Hard Times of Sarah
The Man Who Forgot His Wife and His Hat
What Makes a Case Study Scientific?
Describing the State of the World at Large: Single-Variable Research
Population Surveys
Epidemiological Research
Research on Public Opinion
Limitations and Drawbacks of Population Surveys
Single-Variable Convenience Samples
Describing Associations: Multiple-Variable Research
Correlational Methods
Person Confounds
Environmental Confounds
Operational Confounds
A Reminder About Reverse Causality
Archival Research
Observational Research
Confounds Can Be Measured Too!
Study Questions
Experience Carefully Planned: Experimental Research Designs
A Wonderful Method
A Brief History of True Experiments
Strengths of True Experiments
True Experiments Eliminate Individual Differences
True Experiments Eliminate Other Kinds of Confounds
True Experiments Pull Researchers Into the Laboratory
True Experiments Allow Researchers to Observe the Invisible
True Experiments Provide Information About Statistical Interactions
True Experiments Minimize Noise
A Summary of Experimentation
Are True Experiments Realistic?
The Problem: Artificiality
The Solution: Two Forms of Realism
Is There a Recipe for Experimental Realism?
Trade-Offs Between Internal and External Validity
The "How-To"s of Laboratory Studies
Setting the Stage
Rehearsing and Playing the Part
When the Study Is Done: Replicate as Needed
Study Questions
Experience Carefully Exploited: Quasi-Experimental Research Designs
One Very Old Story
Why Quasi-Experiments?
Kinds of Quasi-Experiments
Person-by-Treatment Quasi-Experiments
Natural Experiments
Nature and Treatment Designs
Patched-Up Designs
Evaluating a Teaching Tool
Would a Rose by Any Other Name Move to Rosemont?
When True Experiments and Quasi-Experiments Collide
Study Questions
Choosing the Right Research Design
One Obscure Movie
One-Way Designs
Factorial Designs
Ins and Outs of Factorial Designs
Main Effects
Within-Subjects Designs
Advantages of Within-Subjects Designs
Disadvantages of Within-Subjects Designs
Mixed-Model Designs
Study Questions
A Brief Course in Statistics
Descriptive Statistics
Central Tendency and Dispersion
The Shape of Distributions
Inferential Statistics
Probability Theory
A Study of Cheating
Things That Go Bump in the Light: Factors That Influence the Results of Significance Tests
Alpha Levels and Type I and II Errors
Effect Size and Significance Testing
Measurement Error and Significance Testing
Sample Size and Significance Testing
Restriction of Range and Significance Testing
The Changing State of the Art: Alternate Perspectives on Statistical Hypothesis Testing
Estimates of Effect Size
Study Questions
Telling the World About It
The Hourglass Approach to Empirical Research Papers
Some "Rules" to Writing Research Papers
Be Correct
Be Clear
Be Comprehensive (but Discerning)
Be Concise
Be (Somewhat) Cautious
Be Assertive
Be Predictable
Be Creative
Be Original (and Cite Your Lack of Originality)
Be Gender Neutral
Be Easy on the Eyes
No More Rules
How to Give a Good Talk in Psychology (by Daniel T. Gilbert)
Have a Plan
Tell the Plan
Start at the Beginning
Be Painfully Clear
Talk About One Interesting Thing
Take Charge of the Interaction
End at the End
Study Questions
Putting Your Knowledge to Work: 20 Methodology Problems
In Search of a Delicious, Low-Fat TV Show
Let's Get Supernatural
Fly Away Home
Impressive Pickup Lines
Clever Who?
Life Sucks and So You Die
On the Drawbacks of Liking Yourself
The Early Bird Gets the Win?
Testosterone Makes Better Dive Bombers
Working Your Fingers to the Dean's List
To Thine Own Selves Be True
A Rosy Mood by Any Other Name?
Old Geniuses Never Die Young?
Sampling Student Opinion
I'm Speechless
He May Be Small but He's Slow
Everyone's a Winner
Can a Couple of Beers Really Go Straight to Your Belly?
What's in a Name?
Are You Threatening Me?
Hands-On Activities
Hands-On Activity 1
Galileo's Dice
Group 1 (the Logical Counters of Ways)
Group 2 (the Logical Expected Evaluators)
Groups 3 and/or 4 (the Empiricists)
What About Intuition and Authority?
More Detailed Instructions for Groups 1 and 2
Hands-On Activity 2
Regression Toward the Mean
Questions for Group Discussion
Special Notes to the Instructor
Hands-On Activity 3
A Double-Blind Taste Test with Popular Colas
Information for the Experimenter
Instructions for Participants in the Cola Taste Test
Questions for Students
Hands-On Activity 4
The Stroop Interference Effect
Advance Preparation
Task Instructions
Methodological Notes
Methodology Exercises
Methodology Exercise 1
Partial Correlation
Hypothetical Data From Observational Study of Cookie Thefts
A Question
More Data
Complete Data for Observational Study of Cookie Thefts
More Questions
Methodology Exercise 2
Random Assignment
Methodology Exercise 3
Methodology Exercise 4
Repeated Measures Designs
How to Describe the Results of Statistical Analyses
The Mysterious Spheres
The Murder Rate Study
The Survey Study of Apathy and Energy
The Newlywed Marriage Study
The Stereotyping Study
A Brief Return to Roberto and to the Newlywed Study
The Duck in the Drugstore Study
The Role of Status in Producing Depressed Entitlement in Women's and Men's Pay Allocations
Name Index
Subject Index