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The Atmosphere | |

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Introduction | |

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Meteorological Conventions | |

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[On Doing Science: Descartes and the Scientific Method] | |

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Thermodynamic State | |

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Pressure | |

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[Focus: e-Folding Distance] | |

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Density | |

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Temperature | |

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[Focus: Escape Velocity] | |

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Equation of State - Ideal Gas Law | |

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Hydrostatic Equilibrium | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Physical Interpretation of Equations] | |

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Hypsometric Equation | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Hypsometric Eq.] | |

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Atmospheric Structure | |

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Standard Atmosphere | |

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Layers of the Atmosphere | |

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Process Terminology | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Radiation | |

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Orbital Factors | |

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Planetary Orbits | |

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[Focus: Satellite Orbits] | |

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Orbit of the Earth | |

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Seasonal Effects | |

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Daily Effects | |

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Sunrise, Sunset and Twilight | |

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Flux | |

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Radiation Principles | |

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Propagation | |

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Emission | |

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[On Doing Science: Scientific Laws - The Myth] | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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[On Doing Science: Seek Solutions] | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Incremental Changes] | |

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Distribution | |

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Average Daily Insolation | |

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Absorption, Reflection and Transmission | |

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Beer's Law | |

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Surface Radiation Budget | |

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Solar | |

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Longwave (IR) | |

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Net Radiation | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Heat | |

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Sensible and Latent Heats | |

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Sensible | |

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Latent | |

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Lagrangian Heat Budget - Part 1: Unsaturated | |

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First Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Lapse Rate | |

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Adiabatic Lapse Rate | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Adiabatic Lapse Rate] | |

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Potential Temperature | |

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Thermodynamic Diagrams - Part 1: Dry Adiabatic Processes | |

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[Focus: Spreadsheet Thermodynamics] | |

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Eulerian Heat Budget | |

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First Law of Thermodynamics - Revisited | |

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Advection | |

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Conduction and Surface Fluxes | |

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Turbulence | |

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Radiation | |

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Internal Source - Latent Heat | |

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Net Heat Budget | |

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Surface Heat Budget | |

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Heat Budget | |

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Bowen Ratio | |

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Apparent Temperatures | |

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Wind Chill | |

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Heat Index | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Boundary Layers | |

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Static Stability--A Preview | |

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Explanation | |

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Rules of Thumb for Stability in the ABL | |

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Boundary-Layer Formation | |

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Tropospheric Constraints | |

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[Focus: Engineering Boundary Layers] | |

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Synoptic Forcings | |

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ABL Structure and Evolution | |

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Temperature | |

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Cumulative Heating or Cooling | |

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Nighttime | |

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Daytime | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Cumulative Heating] | |

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Temperature-Profile Evolution | |

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Idealized Evolution | |

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Seasonal Differences | |

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Stable-Boundary-Layer Temperature | |

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Mixed-Layer Temperature, Entrainment | |

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Wind | |

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Wind Profile Evolution | |

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Drag, Stress, Friction Velocity, Roughness Length | |

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Log Profile in the Neutral Surface Layer | |

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Log-Linear Profile in the Stable Surface Layer | |

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Profile in the Convective Radix Layer | |

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Turbulence | |

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Mean and Turbulent Parts | |

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Variance and Standard Deviation | |

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Isotropy | |

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Turbulence Kinetic Energy | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Free and Forced Convection | |

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Turbulent Fluxes and Covariances | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Moisture | |

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Saturation Vapor Pressure | |

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Vapor Pressure | |

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Saturation | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Clausius-Clapeyron Eq.] | |

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[Focus: Boiling] | |

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Humidity Variables | |

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Mixing Ratio | |

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Specific Humidity | |

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Absolute Humidity | |

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Relative Humidity | |

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Dew Point Temperature | |

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Saturation Level or Lifting Condensation Level (LCL) | |

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Wet-Bulb Temperature | |

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More Relationships Between Moisture Variables | |

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[Focus: Why so Many Moisture Variables?] | |

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Total Water Mixing Ratio | |

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Lagrangian Water Budget | |

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Water Conservation | |

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Thermo Diagrams - Part 2: Isohumes | |

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Eulerian Water Budget | |

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Horizontal Advection | |

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Precipitation | |

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Surface Moisture Flux | |

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Turbulent Transport | |

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[On Doing Science: Look for Patterns] | |

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Lagrangian Heat Budget--Part 2: Saturated | |

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Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate | |

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Thermo Diagrams - Part 3: Saturated Adiabats | |

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[Focus: Spreadsheet Thermodynamics 2] | |

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Liquid-Water and Equivalent Potential Temps | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Stability | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Thermodynamic Diagrams - Part 4: Applications | |

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[Full Thermo Diagram: T vs. log P] | |

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[Full Thermo Diagram: [Theta] vs. z] | |

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State | |

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Dry (Unsaturated) Processes | |

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Moist (Saturated) Processes and Liquid Water | |

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Precipitation | |

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Radiative Heating/Cooling | |

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Parcels vs. Environment | |

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Buoyancy | |

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Static Stability | |

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Unstable | |

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Neutral | |

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Stable | |

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Thermo Diagrams for Boundary Layers | |

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Mixed-Layer Depth Determination | |

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[Boundary Layer Thermo Diagram: T vs. log P] | |

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[Boundary Layer Thermo Diagram: [Theta] vs. z] | |

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Brunt-Vaisala Frequency | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Brunt-Vaisala Frequency] | |

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Dynamic Stability | |

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Richardson Number | |

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[Focus: LeChatelier's Principle] | |

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Turbulence Determination | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Cloud Formation | |

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Cloud Development | |

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Active - Cumuliform | |

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Passive - Stratiform | |

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Stratocumulus | |

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Cloud Sizes | |

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Fractal Cloud Shapes | |

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Fractal Dimension | |

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Measuring Fractal Dimension | |

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Processes Causing Saturation | |

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Cooling and Moisturizing | |

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Mixing | |

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Clouds and Upslope Fog | |

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Other Fogs | |

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Processes | |

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Advection Fog | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Advection Fog] | |

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Radiation Fog | |

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Dissipation of Well-Mixed (Advection and Radiation) Fogs | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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[On Doing Science: Cargo Cult Science] | |

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Precipitation | |

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[Focus: Meteors and Meteorology] | |

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Nucleation of Liquid Droplets | |

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Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) | |

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Curvature and Solute Effects | |

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Critical Radius | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Critical Radius] | |

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Haze | |

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Activated Nuclei | |

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Nucleation of Ice Crystals | |

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Processes | |

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Nuclei | |

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Droplet Growth by Diffusion | |

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Max Droplet Radius via Diffusion | |

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Growth Rate | |

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Ice Growth by Diffusion | |

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Ice Crystal Habits | |

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Growth Rates | |

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The Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) Process | |

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Collision and Collection | |

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Terminal Velocity of Droplets | |

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Cloud Droplets | |

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Rain Drops | |

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Processes | |

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Droplet Size Distributions | |

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Precipitable Water | |

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Rainfall Rate Estimated by Radar | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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[On Doing Science: Consequences] | |

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Dynamics | |

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Newton's Second Law of Motion | |

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Lagrangian Momentum Budget | |

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[On Doing Science: Be Creative] | |

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[Focus: In Newton's Own Words] | |

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Eulerian Momentum Budget | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Forces | |

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Advection | |

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Pressure Gradient Force | |

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Centrifugal Force | |

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Coriolis Force | |

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[Focus: Coriolis Force] | |

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Turbulent Drag Force | |

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Full Equations of Motion | |

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Height Contours on Isobaric Surfaces | |

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Winds | |

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Geostrophic Wind | |

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Gradient Wind | |

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Boundary-Layer Wind | |

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Boundary-Layer Gradient (BLG) Wind | |

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Cyclostrophic Wind | |

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Full Equations of Motion - Revisited | |

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Mass Conservation | |

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Continuity Equation | |

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Incompressible Continuity Equation | |

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Boundary-Layer Pumping | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Local Winds | |

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Scales of Motion | |

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Wind-Speed Probability | |

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Wind Turbines and Power Generation | |

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Vertical Equation of Motion | |

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Thermally Driven Circulations | |

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Thermals | |

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Anabatic Wind | |

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Katabatic Wind | |

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Streamlines, Streaklines, and Trajectories | |

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Bernoulli's Equation | |

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Dynamic vs. Static Pressure | |

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Venturi Effect and Gap Winds | |

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Downslope Winds - Bora and Foehn | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Hydraulic Jump | |

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[On Doing Science: Simple is Best] | |

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Mountain Waves | |

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Natural Wavelength | |

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Lenticular Clouds | |

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Froude Number | |

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Mountain-Wave Drag | |

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Foehns (again) and Chinooks | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Global Circulation | |

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Nomenclature | |

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Differential Heating | |

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Meridional Temperature Gradient | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Temperature Gradient] | |

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Radiative Forcings | |

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[On Doing Science: Toy Models] | |

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Heat Transport Needed | |

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Thermal Wind Relationship | |

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Thickness | |

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Thermal Wind | |

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Jet Stream | |

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Baroclinicity | |

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Angular Momentum | |

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Vorticity | |

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Relative Vorticity | |

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[Focus: Solid-Body Relative Vorticity] | |

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Absolute Vorticity | |

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Potential Vorticity | |

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Isentropic Potential Vorticity | |

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Midlatitude Troughs and Ridges | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Vorticity of a Wave] | |

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Barotropic Instability and Rossby Waves | |

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[Beyond Algebra: The Beta Plane] | |

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Baroclinic Instability and Planetary Waves | |

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Qualitative Model | |

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Quantitative Approach | |

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[Focus: Rossby Radius of Deformation and Geostrophic Adjustment - Part 1] | |

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Heat Transport | |

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Momentum Transport | |

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Three-Band General Circulation | |

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Ekman Spiral in the Ocean | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Air Masses and Fronts | |

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Anticyclones or Highs | |

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Characteristics | |

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Vertical Structure | |

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Air Masses | |

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Creation | |

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Warm Air Masses | |

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Cold Air Masses | |

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Modification | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Synoptic Weather Maps | |

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Weather Observations | |

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Map Analysis, Plotting and Isoplething | |

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Surface Fronts | |

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[Focus: The Bergen School of Meteorology] | |

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Horizontal Structure | |

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Warm Fronts | |

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Cold Fronts | |

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Vertical Structure | |

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Geostrophic Adjustment - Part 2 | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Geostrophic Adjustment] | |

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Frontogenesis | |

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Kinematics | |

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Confluence | |

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Shear | |

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Tilting | |

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Thermodynamics | |

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Dynamics | |

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Occluded Fronts and Mid-Tropospheric Fronts | |

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Upper-Tropospheric Fronts | |

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Dry Lines | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Cyclones | |

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Case Study of a Cyclone over North America | |

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Overview and Storm Track | |

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Storm Data | |

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Cyclogenesis | |

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Lee Cyclogenesis | |

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Stationary Planetary Waves | |

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Conservation of Potential Vorticity | |

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Equatorward Propagation Along the Lee Side | |

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[Focus: Maximum Advection on WX Maps] | |

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Cyclone Spin-Up | |

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Vorticity Tendency | |

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Quasi-Geostrophic Approximation | |

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Application to Idealized Weather Patterns | |

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Upward Motion | |

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Continuity Effects | |

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Jet-Stream Curvature | |

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Jet Streaks | |

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Omega Equation | |

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Sea-level Pressure Tendency | |

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Mass Budget | |

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Diabatic Heating | |

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Net Pressure Tendency | |

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Self Development of Cyclones | |

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Condensation | |

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Temperature Advection | |

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[Science Graffito and On Doing Science] | |

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Iso-surfaces and Their Utility | |

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Height | |

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Pressure | |

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Thickness | |

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Potential Temperature | |

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Potential Vorticity (PVU) | |

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Case Study of a Cyclone (continued) | |

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Surface Charts | |

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Isobaric Charts at 85, 70, 50, and 25 kPa | |

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Vertical Cross Section | |

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100 - 50 kPa Thickness Chart | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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[Beyond Algebra: The Omega Equation] | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Numerical Weather Prediction | |

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Solutions to Atmospheric Equations | |

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Approximate Solutions | |

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Parameterizations and Models | |

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[Focus: History of NWP] | |

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[On Doing Science: Mathematics] | |

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Grid Points | |

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Finite-Difference Equations | |

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Numerical Stability | |

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The Numerical-Forecast Process | |

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Balanced Mass and Flow Fields | |

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Data Assimilation and Analysis | |

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[Focus: The Pacific Data Void] | |

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Forecasts | |

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[Focus: Electricity and Operational Reliability] | |

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Case Study: 22 - 25 Feb 1994 - N. America | |

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Post-processing | |

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Forecast Refinement | |

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Forecast Quality | |

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Accuracy vs. Skill | |

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Verification Scores | |

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Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos | |

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Predictability | |

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Lorenz Strange Attractor | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Ensemble Forecasts | |

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[On Doing Science: Scientific Revolutions] | |

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Useful Indicators on Weather Maps Produced By NWP | |

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Elements of a Good Weather Briefing | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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[Science Graffiti] | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Thunderstorms | |

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Convective Conditions | |

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Conditional Instability | |

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Trigger Mechanisms | |

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CAPE | |

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Severe-Thunderstorm Environment | |

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Downbursts and Gust Fronts | |

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Precipitation Drag | |

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Evaporative Cooling | |

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Gust Fronts | |

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[Focus: Downbursts and Flight Operations] | |

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Lightning and Thunder | |

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Lightning | |

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Thunder | |

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Tornadoes | |

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Origin of Rotation | |

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Mesocyclones and Helicity | |

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Tornadoes and Swirl Ratio | |

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Core Pressure Deficit | |

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Tornado Intensity Scales | |

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Doppler Radar | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Hurricanes | |

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Dynamics | |

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Initial Spin Up | |

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Subsequent Development | |

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Thermodynamics | |

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Warm Core | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Pressure Reversal] | |

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[Focus: Warm vs. Cold Core Cyclones] | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Warm Core Winds] | |

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Carnot Cycle | |

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[Focus: The Power of Hurricanes] | |

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A Hurricane Model | |

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Pressure Distribution | |

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Tangential Velocity | |

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[Focus: Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale] | |

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Radial Velocity | |

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Vertical Velocity | |

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Temperature | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Composite Picture | |

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Storm Surge | |

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Atmospheric Pressure Head | |

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Ekman Transport | |

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Kelvin Wave | |

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Surface Wind-Waves | |

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[Focus: Beaufort Wind Scale] | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Air Pollution Dispersion | |

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Dispersion Factors | |

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Air Quality Standards | |

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Turbulence Statistics | |

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Review of Basic Definitions | |

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Isotropy (again) | |

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Pasquill-Gifford (PG) Turbulence Types | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Dispersion Statistics | |

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Snapshot vs. Average | |

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Center of Mass | |

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Standard Deviation--Sigma | |

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Gaussian Curve | |

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Nominal Plume Edge | |

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Taylor's Statistical Theory | |

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Passive Conservative Tracers | |

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Dispersion Equation | |

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Dispersion Near and Far from the Source | |

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Dispersion in Neutral and Stable Boundary Layers | |

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Plume Rise | |

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Neutral Boundary Layers | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Stable Boundary Layers | |

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Gaussian Concentration Distribution | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Diffusion Equation] | |

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Dispersion in Unstable Boundary Layers | |

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Relevant Variables | |

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Physical Variables | |

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Mixed Layer Scaling Variables | |

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Dimensionless Scales | |

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Plume Centerline | |

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Crosswind Integrated Concentration | |

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Concentration | |

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[On Doing Science: The Citizen Scientist] | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Climate Change | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Radiative Equilibrium | |

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Greenhouse Effect | |

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Atmospheric Window | |

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Water Vapor and Cloud Feedbacks | |

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Cloudless Atmosphere | |

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Cloudy Atmosphere | |

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Ice-Albedo-Temperature Feedback | |

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Daisyworld | |

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Physics | |

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Equilibrium and Homeostasis | |

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GCMs | |

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Sensitivity | |

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Definition | |

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Magnitudes | |

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Usage | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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[On Doing Science: Ethics and Data Abuse] | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Optics | |

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Ray Geometry | |

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Reflection | |

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Refraction | |

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[Focus: Newton and Colors] | |

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Huygens' Principle | |

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Critical Angle | |

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Liquid Drop Optics | |

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Reflection from Water | |

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Primary Rainbow | |

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Secondary Rainbow | |

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Alexander's Dark Band | |

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[Focus: Rainbows and the Renaissance] | |

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Ice-Crystal Optics | |

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Sun Pillar | |

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Parhelic Circle | |

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Subsun | |

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22[degree] Halo | |

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46[degree] Halo | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Circumzenith Arc | |

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Sun Dogs | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Subsun Dogs | |

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Upper Tangent Arcs | |

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Scattering | |

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Rayleigh Scattering | |

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[On Doing Science: Great Scientists Make Big Mistakes] | |

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Polarization | |

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Geometric Scattering | |

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Mie Scattering | |

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Diffraction | |

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Mirages | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Fundamentals of Science | |

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Dimensions and Units | |

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Definitions | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Unit Conversion | |

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Functions and Finite Difference | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Calculus] | |

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Relationships and Graphs | |

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Linear | |

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Logarithmic | |

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Power | |

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On Doing Science | |

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[On Doing Science: Have Passion] | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

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Numerical Problems | |

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Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

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Web-Enhanced Questions | |

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Synthesis Questions | |

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Constants and Conversion Factors | |

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Universal Constants | |

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Earth Characteristics | |

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Air and Water Characteristics | |

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Conversion Factors and Combined Parameters | |

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Other Information | |

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Notation | |

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Roman Symbols, Acronyms and Contractions | |

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Greek Symbols | |

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Operators | |

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Superscripts | |

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Subscripts | |

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Special Symbols | |

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Additional Reading Material | |

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The Atmosphere | |

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Radiation, Thermodynamics and Moisture | |

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Cloud and Satellite Pictures | |

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Cloud and Storm Processes | |

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Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans | |

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Boundary-Layers and Air Pollution | |

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Synoptics | |

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Numerical Weather Prediction and Chaos | |

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Hurricanes | |

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Climate Change | |

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Optics | |

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Answers to Selected Exercises | |

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Syllabus | |

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The Student Mix | |

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Tests and Grading | |

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Textbooks and Homework | |

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Lectures and Weekly Schedule | |

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Chapter Correspondences | |

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Ahrens' Essentials | |

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Ahrens' Meteorology Today | |

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Holton's Dynamic Meteorology | |

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Wallace and Hobbs' Atmospheric Science | |

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Turbulence Closure | |

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Turbulence Closure Types | |

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[On Doing Science: Parameterization Rules] | |

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K-Theory | |

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Transilient Turbulence Theory | |

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Nonlocal Closure | |

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Concept | |

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Mathematical Framework | |

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[Beyond Algebra: Matrices] | |

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Nonlocal Flux | |

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[Science Graffito] | |

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Summary | |

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Threads | |

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Exercises | |

| |

| |

Numerical Problems | |

| |

| |

Understanding and Critical Evaluation | |

| |

| |

Web-Enhanced Questions | |

| |

| |

Synthesis Questions | |

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Index | |