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Preludes | |

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Nature and Mathematics: Physics as Natural Philosophy | |

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Contemporary Physics: Classical and Modern | |

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Standards for Measurement | |

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Units of Convenience and Unit Conversions | |

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The Meaning of the Word Dimension | |

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The Various Meanings of the Equal Sign | |

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Estimation and Order of Magnitude | |

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The Distinction Between Precision and Accuracy | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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A Mathematical Toolbox: An Introduction to Vector Analysis | |

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Scalar and Vector Quantities | |

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Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar | |

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Parallel Transport of Vectors | |

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Vector Addition by Geometric Methods: Tail-to-Tip Method | |

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Determining Whether a Quantity is a Vector | |

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Vector Difference by Geometric Methods | |

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The Scalar Product of Two Vectors | |

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The Cartesian Coordinate System and the Cartesian Unit Vectors | |

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The Cartesian Representation of Any Vector | |

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Multiplication of a Vector Expressed in Cartesian Form by a Scalar | |

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Expressing Vector Addition and Subtraction in Cartesian Form | |

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The Scalar Product of Two Vectors Expressed in Cartesian Form | |

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Determining the Angle Between Two Vectors Expressed in Cartesian Form | |

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Equality of Two Vectors | |

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Vector Equations | |

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The Vector Product of Two Vectors | |

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The Vector Product of Two Vectors Expressed in Cartesian Form | |

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Variation of a Vector | |

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Some Aspects of Vector Calculus | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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Kinematics I: Rectilinear Motion | |

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Rectilinear Motion | |

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Position and Changes in Position | |

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Average Speed and Average Velocity | |

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Instantaneous Speed and Instantaneous Velocity | |

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Average Acceleration | |

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Instantaneous Acceleration | |

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Rectilinear Motion with a Constant Acceleration | |

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Geometric Interpretations | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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Kinematics II: Motion in Two and Three Dimensions | |

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The Position, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors in Two Dimensions | |

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Two-Dimensional Motion with a Constant Acceleration | |

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Motion in Three Dimensions | |

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Relative Velocity Addition and Accelerations | |

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Uniform Circular Motion: A First Look | |

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The Angular Velocity Vector | |

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The Geometry and Coordinates for Describing Circular Motion | |

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The Position Vector for Circular Motion | |

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The Velocity and Angular Velocity in Circular Motion | |

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Uniform Circular Motion Revisited | |

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Nonuniform Circular Motion and the Angular Acceleration | |

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Nonuniform Circular Motion with a Constant Angular Acceleration | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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Newton's Laws of Motion | |

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Fundamental Particles | |

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The Fundamental Forces of Nature | |

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Newton's First Law of Motion and a Qualitative Conception of Force | |

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The Concept of Force and Its Measurement | |

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Newton's Second Law of Motion | |

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Newton's Third Law of Motion | |

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Limitations to Applying Newton's Laws of Motion | |

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Inertial Reference Frames: Do They Really Exist? | |

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Second Law and Third Law Force Diagrams | |

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Weight and the Normal Force of a Surface | |

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Tension in Ropes, Strings, or Cables | |

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Static Friction | |

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Kinetic Friction at Low Speeds | |

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Kinetic Friction Proportional to the Particle Speed | |

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Fundamental Forces and Other Forces Revisited | |

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Noninertial Reference Frames | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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The Gravitational Force and the Gravitational Field | |

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How Did Newton Deduce the Gravitational Force Law? | |

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Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation | |

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Gravitational Force of a Uniform Spherical Shell on a Particle | |

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Gravitational Force of a Uniform Sphere on a Particle | |

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Measuring the Mass of the Earth | |

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Artificial Satellites of the Earth | |

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Kepler's First Law of Planetary Motion and the Geometry of Ellipses | |

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Spatial Average Position of a Planet in an Elliptical Orbit | |

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Kepler's Second Law of Planetary Motion | |

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Central Forces, Orbital Angular Momentum, and Kepler's Second Law | |

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Newton's Form for Kepler's Third Law of Planetary Motion | |

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Customized Units | |

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The Gravitational Field | |

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The Flux of a Vector | |

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Gauss's Law for the Gravitational Field | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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Hooke's Force Law and Simple Harmonic Oscillation | |

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Hooke's Force Law | |

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Simple Harmonic Oscillation | |

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A Vertically Oriented Spring | |

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Connection Between Simple Harmonic Oscillation and Uniform Circular Motion | |

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How to Determine Whether an Oscillatory Motion is Simple Harmonic Motion | |

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The Simple Pendulum | |

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Through a Fictional Earth in 42 Minutes | |

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Damped Oscillations | |

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Forced Oscillations and Resonance | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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Work, Energy, and the CWE Theorem | |

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Motivation for Introducing the Concepts of Work and Energy | |

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The Work Done by Any Force | |

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The Work Done by a Constant Force | |

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The Work Done by the Total Force | |

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Geometric Interpretation of the Work Done by a Force | |

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Conservative, Nonconservative, and Zero-Work Forces | |

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Examples of Conservative, Nonconservative, and Zero-Work Forces | |

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The Concept of Potential Energy | |

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The Gravitational Potential Energy of a System near the Surface of the Earth | |

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The General Form for the Gravitational Potential Energy | |

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The Relationship Between the Local Form for the Gravitational Potential Energy and the More General Form | |

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The Potential Energy Function Associated with Hooke's Force Law | |

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The CWE Theorem | |

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The Escape Speed | |

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Black Holes | |

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Limitations of the CWE Theorem: Two Paradoxical Examples | |

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The Simple Harmonic Oscillator Revisited | |

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The Average and Instantaneous Power of a Force | |

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The Power of the Total Force Acting on a System | |

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Motion Under the Influence of Conservative Forces Only: Energy Diagrams | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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fImpulse, Momentum, and Collisions | |

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Momentum and Newton's Second Law of Motion | |

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Impulse-Momentum Theorem | |

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The Rocket: A System with Variable Mass | |

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Conservation of Momentum | |

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Collisions | |

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Disintegrations and Explosions | |

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The Centripetal Acceleration Revisited | |

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An Alternative Way to Look at Force Transmission | |

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The Center of Mass | |

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Dynamics of a System of Particles | |

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Kinetic Energy of a System of Particles | |

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The Velocity of the Center of Mass for Collisions | |

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The Center of Mass Reference Frame | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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fSpin and Orbital Motion | |

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The Distinction Between Spin and Orbital Motion | |

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The Orbital Angular Momentum of a Particle | |

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The Circular Orbital Motion of a Single Particle | |

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Noncircular Orbital Motion | |

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Rigid Bodies and Symmetry Axes | |

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Spin Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body | |

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The Time Rate of Change of the Spin Angular Momentum | |

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The Moment of Inertia of Various Rigid Bodies | |

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The Kinetic Energy of a Spinning System | |

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Spin Distorts the Shape of the Earth | |

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The Precession of a Rapidly Spinning Top | |

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The Precession of the Spinning Earth | |

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Simultaneous Spin and Orbital Motion | |

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Synchronous Rotation and the Parallel Axis Theorem | |

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Rolling Motion Without Slipping | |

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Wheels | |

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Total Angular Momentum and Torque | |

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Conservation of Angular Momentum | |

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Conditions for Static Equilibrium | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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fSolids and Fluids | |

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States of Matter | |

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Stress, Strain, and Young's Modulus for Solids | |

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Fluid Pressure | |

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Static Fluids | |

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Pascal's Principle | |

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Archimedes' Principle | |

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The Center of Buoyancy | |

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Surface Tension | |

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Capillary Action | |

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Fluid Dynamics: Ideal Fluids | |

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Equation of Flow Continuity | |

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Bernoulli's Principle for Incompressible Ideal Fluids | |

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Nonideal Fluids | |

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Viscous Flow | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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fWaves | |

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What is a Wave? | |

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Longitudinal and Transverse Waves | |

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Wavefunctions, Waveforms, and Oscillations | |

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Waves Propagating in One, Two, and Three Dimensions | |

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One-Dimensional Waves Moving at Constant Velocity | |

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The Classical Wave Equation for One-Dimensional Waves | |

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Periodic Waves | |

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Sinusoidal (Harmonic) Waves | |

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Waves on a String | |

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Reflection and Transmission of Waves | |

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Energy Transport Via Mechanical Waves | |

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Wave Intensity | |

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What is a Sound Wave? | |

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Sound Intensity and Sound Level | |

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The Acoustic Doppler Effect | |

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Shock Waves | |

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Diffraction of Waves | |

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The Principle of Superposition | |

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Standing Waves | |

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Wave Groups and Beats | |

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Fourier Analysis and the Uncertainty Principles | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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fTemperature, Heat Transfer, and the First Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Simple Thermodynamic Systems | |

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Temperature | |

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Work, Heat Transfer and Thermal Equilibrium | |

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The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Thermometers and Temperature Scales | |

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Temperature Conversions Between the Fahrenheit and Celsius Scales | |

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Thermal Effects in Solids and Liquids: Size | |

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Thermal Effects in Ideal Gases | |

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Calorimetry | |

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Reservoirs | |

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Mechanisms for Heat Transfer | |

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Thermodynamic Processes | |

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Energy Conservation: The First Law of Thermodynamics and the CWE Theorem | |

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The Connection Between the CWE Theorem and the General Statement of Energy Conservation | |

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Work Done by a System on Its Surroundings | |

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Work Done by a Gas Taken Around a Cycle | |

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Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics: Changes of State | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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fKinetic Theory | |

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Background for the Kinetic Theory of Gases | |

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The Ideal Gas Approximation | |

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The Pressure of an Ideal Gas | |

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The Meaning of the Absolute Temperature | |

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The Internal Energy of an Monatomic Ideal Gas | |

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The Molar Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas | |

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Complications Arise for Diatomic and Polyatomic Gases | |

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Degrees of Freedom and the Equipartition of Energy Theorem | |

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Specific Heat of a Solid | |

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Some Failures of Classical Kinetic Theory | |

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Quantum Mechanical Effects | |

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An Adiabatic Process for an Ideal Gas | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |

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fThe Second Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Why Do Some Things Happen, While Others Do Not? | |

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Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | |

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The Carnot Heat Engine and Its Efficiency | |

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Absolute Zero and the Third Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Refrigerator Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | |

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The Carnot Refrigerator Engine | |

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The Efficiency of Real Heat Engines and Refrigerator Engines | |

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A New Concept: Entropy | |

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Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | |

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The Direction of Heat Transfer: A Consequence of the Second Law | |

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A Statistical Interpretation of the Entropy | |

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Entropy Maximization and the Arrow of Time | |

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Extensive and Intensive State Variables | |

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Chapter Summary | |

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Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics | |

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Questions | |

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Problems | |

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Investigative Projects | |