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Komatiite

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ISBN-10: 0521874742

ISBN-13: 9780521874748

Edition: 2008

Authors: Nicholas Arndt, C. Michael Lesher, Steve Barnes

List price: $147.00
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Description:

Komatiites erupted billions of years ago as pulsating streams of white-hot lava. Their unusual chemical compositions and exceptionally high formation temperatures produced highly fluid lava that crystallized as spectacular layered flows. Investigation of the extreme conditions in which komatiites formed provides important evidence about the thermal and chemical evolution of the planet, and the nature of the Precambrian mantle. This monograph, written by three experts with long experience in the field, presents a complete account of the characteristics of komatiites including their volcanic structures, textures, mineralogy and chemical compositions. Models for their formation and eruption are evaluated (including the anhydrous vs. hydrous magmas controversy). A chapter is also devoted to the valuable nickel and copper ore deposits found in komatiites. Komatiite is a key reference for researchers and advanced students interested in petrology, Archaean geology, economic geology, and broader questions about the evolution of the Earths crust and mantle.
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Book details

List price: $147.00
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 7/3/2008
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 488
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

Nicholas Arndt was awarded a Ph.D. from the University of Toronto in Canada in 1975. Following academic positions in the United States, Canada and Germany and at the Universit� de Rennes, France, he moved in 1999 to the Universit� de Grenoble where he is Professor of Petrology-Geochemistry. Professor Arndt's research interests include petrology and geochemistry of mafic and ultramafic rocks, magmatic ore deposits, and the early-Earth environment. He is Director of the European Science Foundation 'Archean Environment: the Habitat of Early Life' program and a founding editor of eEarth, an online journal of the European Geosciences Union.

Michael Lesher is Professor of Economic Geology and Research Chair in the Mineral Exploration Research Centre and Department of Earth Sciencesat Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario. He works on the petrogenesis and physical volcanology of komatiites and associated magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE deposits.

Preface
Background information - description of the field characteristics, mineralogy and geochemistry of komatiites
A brief history of komatiite studies and a discussion of komatiite nomenclature
The discovery and early investigations of komatiite
More recent studies
Nomenclature
Komatiite lithofacies
Conclusion
Brief descriptions of six classic komatiite occurrences
Introduction
Komatiites in the Barberton greenstone belt
Komatiites in the Abitibi greenstone belt
Ore-bearing komatiites at Kambalda
Komatiitic basalts on Gilmour Island
Karasjok-type Fe-Ti-rich komatiites and picrites in Fennoscandia
Komatiites and picrites from Gorgona Island
Field characteristics, textures and structures
Introduction
Types of komatiite flows
Dimensions of komatiite flows
Spinifex texture
Textural variations in layered komatiite flows
Komatiite flows without spinifex textures
Flows with thin spinifex layers
Thick dunitic units
Pillowed komatiites
Volcaniclastic komatiites
Komatiitic basalts
Intrusive komatiites
Mineralogy
Introduction
Primary minerals
Secondary minerals
Summary
Geochemistry
Introduction
Olivine fractionation in komatiites
Mobile and immobile elements: the olivine control line criterion
Mobility of Mg
Other approaches used to demonstrate element mobility
Other types of mobile element behaviour
Igneous chemistry of komatiites
Igneous chemistry of komatiitic basalts
Isotopic compositions of komatiites
Introduction
The Rb-Sr system
The Sm-Nd system
U-Pb and Pb-Pb methods
The Re-Os system
The Lu-Hf system
Helium isotopes
Stable isotopes
Conclusions emerging from the isotopic compositions of komatiites
Experimental petrology
Introduction
Experiments at 1 atm pressure
Partition coefficients from experimental studies
Experiments at moderate pressures (1-4 GPa)
High-pressure experiments on komatiites
Trace-element partitioning at high pressures
Dynamic cooling experiments
Huppert and Sparks' experiments
Summary and implications for komatiite petrogenesis
Interpretation - the manner of emplacement, the origin and the tectonic setting of komatiites
Physical properties of komatiites
Introduction
Temperature
Crystallization interval
Viscosity
Density
Other thermal properties
Physical volcanology (by S.J. Barnes and C.M. Lesher)
Introduction
Nomenclature and terminology
Komatiite facies
Komatiite flows and flow fields: size, structure and emplacement processes
Crystallization of komatiite liquids and the origin of distinctive komatiite textures
Models for the emplacement and solidification of komatiite flows
What did komatiite volcanoes look like?
Concluding comments
Komatiite-associated Ni-Cu-PGE deposits (by C.M. Lesher and S.J. Barnes)
Introduction
General characteristics
Type I deposits
Type II deposits
Type V deposits
Compositions of komatiite-hosted sulfide ores
Origin of komatiite-associated ores
Exploration guidelines
The hydrous komatiite hypothesis
Introduction
Development of the hypothesis
Extrusive Barberton komatiites: papers by J. Dann published in 2000 and 2001
Elaboration of the subduction zone model: papers by Parman et al. and Grove and Parman published between 2001 and 2004
Other papers discussing the hydrous komatiite model
A critical evaluation of the hydrous komatiite model
Compositions and eruption temperatures of komatiitic liquids
Introduction
Methods used to estimate liquid compositions
Petrogenesis of komatiite
Nature of the komatiite source
What does it take to make an ultramafic magma?
Conditions of melting
The formation of various types of komatiite
The formation of komatiitic and tholeiitic basalts
Summary
Geodynamic setting
Introduction
The geodynamic setting of Archean greenstone belts
A mantle plume does not know what it will meet at the surface
Passage through the lithosphere
The setting of komatiitic volcanism
Conclusions
References
General index
Localities