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Airplane Stability and Control A History of the Technologies That Made Aviation Possible

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ISBN-10: 0521809924

ISBN-13: 9780521809924

Edition: 2nd 2002 (Revised)

Authors: Malcolm J. Abzug, E. Eugene Larrabee, Michael J. Rycroft, Wei Shyy

List price: $180.00
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Description:

From the early machines to today's sophisticated aircraft, stability and control have always been crucial considerations. In this second edition, Abzug and Larrabee again forge through the history of aviation technologies to present an informal history of the personalities and the events, the art and the science of airplane stability and control. The book includes never-before-available impressions of those active in the field, from pre-Wright brothers airplane and glider builders through to contemporary aircraft designers. Arranged thematically, the book deals with early developments, research centers, the effects of power on stability and control, the discovery of inertial coupling, the challenge of stealth aerodynamics, a look toward the future, and much more. It is profusely illustrated with photographs and figures, and includes brief biographies of noted stability and control figures along with a core bibliography. Professionals, students, and aviation enthusiasts alike will appreciate this readable history of airplane stability and control.
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Book details

List price: $180.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 9/23/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 414
Size: 6.75" wide x 10.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.892
Language: English

Preface
Early Developments in Stability and Control
Inherent Stability and the Early Machines
The Problem of Control
Catching Up to the Wright Brothers
The Invention of Flap-Type Control Surfaces and Tabs
Handles, Wheels, and Pedals
Wright Controls
Bleriot and Deperdussin Controls
Stability and Control of World War I Pursuit Airplanes
Contrasting Design Philosophies
Frederick Lanchester
G. H. Bryan and the Equations of Motion
Metacenter, Center of Pressure, Aerodynamic Center, and Neutral Point
Teachers and Texts
Stability and Control Educators
Modern Stability and Control Teaching Methods
Stability and Control Research Institutions
Stability and Control Textbooks and Conferences
Flying Qualities Become a Science
Warner, Norton, and Allen
The First Flying Qualities Specification
Hartley Soule and Floyd Thompson at Langley
Robert Gilruth's Breakthrough
S. B. Gates in Britain
The U.S. Military Services Follow NACA's Lead
Civil Airworthiness Requirements
World-Wide Flying Qualities Specifications
Equivalent System Models and Pilot Rating
The Counterrevolution
Procurement Problems
Variable-Stability Airplanes Play a Part
Variable-Stability Airplanes as Trainers
The Future of Variable-Stability Airplanes
The V/STOL Case
Two Famous Airplanes
Changing Military Missions and Flying Qualities Requirements
Long-Lived Stability and Control Myths
Power Effects on Stability and Control
Propeller Effects on Stability and Control
Direct-Thrust Moments in Pitch
Direct-Thrust Moments in Yaw
World War II Twin-Engine Bombers
Modern Light Twin Airplanes
Propeller Slipstream Effects
Direct Propeller Forces in Yaw (or at Angle of Attack)
Jet and Rocket Effects on Stability and Control
Jet Intake Normal Force
Airstream Deviation Due to Inflow
Special VTOL Jet Inflow Effects
Jet Damping and Inertial Effects
Managing Control Forces
Desirable Control Force Levels
Background to Aerodynamically Balanced Control Surfaces
Horn Balances
Overhang or Leading-Edge Balances
Frise Ailerons
Aileron Differential
Balancing or Geared Tabs
Trailing-Edge Angle and Beveled Controls
Corded Controls
Spoiler Ailerons
Spoiler Opening Aerodynamics
Spoiler Steady-State Aerodynamics
Spoiler Operating Forces
Spoiler Aileron Applications
Internally Balanced Controls
Flying or Servo and Linked Tabs
Spring Tabs
Springy Tabs and Downsprings
All-Movable Controls
Mechanical Control System Design Details
Hydraulic Control Boost
Early Hydraulic Boost Problems
Irreversible Powered Controls
Artificial Feel Systems
Fly-by-Wire
Remaining Design Problems in Power Control Systems
Safety Issues in Fly-by-Wire Control Systems
Managing Redundancy in Fly-by-Wire Control Systems
Electric and Fly-by-Light Controls
Stability and Control at the Design Stage
Layout Principles
Subsonic Airplane Balance
Tail Location, Size, and Shape
Estimation from Drawings
Early Methods
Wing and Tail Methods
Bodies
Wing-Body Interference
Downwash and Sidewash
Early Design Methods Matured-DATCOM, RAeS, JSASS Data Sheets
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Estimation from Wind-Tunnel Data
The Jets at an Awkward Age
Needed Devices Are Not Installed
F4D, A4D, and A3D Manual Reversions
Partial Power Control
Nonelectronic Stability Augmentation
Grumman XF10F Jaguar
Successful B-52 Compromises
The B-52 Rudder Has Limited Control Authority
The B-52 Elevator Also Has Limited Control Authority
The B-52 Manually Controlled Ailerons Are Small
The Discovery of Inertial Coupling
W. H. Phillips Finds an Anomaly
The Phillips Inertial Coupling Technical Note
The First Flight Occurrences
The 1956 Wright Field Conference
Simplifications and Explications
The F4D Skyray Experience
Later Developments
Inertial Coupling and Future General-Aviation Aircraft
Spinning and Recovery
Spinning Before 1916
Advent of the Free-Spinning Wind Tunnels
Systematic Configuration Variations
Design for Spin Recovery
Changing Spin Recovery Piloting Techniques
Automatic Spin Recovery
The Role of Rotary Derivatives in Spins
Rotary Balances and the Steady Spin
Rotary Balances and the Unsteady Spin
Parameter Estimation Methods for Spins
The Case of the Grumman/American AA-1B
The Break with the Past
Effects of Wing Design on Spin Entry and Recovery
Drop and Radio-Controlled Model Testing
Remotely Piloted Spin Model Testing
Criteria for Departure Resistance
Vortex Effects and Self-Induced Wing Rock
Bifurcation Theory
Departures in Modern Fighters
Tactical Airplane Maneuverability
How Fast Should Fighter Airplanes Roll?
Air-to-Air Missile-Armed Fighters
Control Sensitivity and Overshoots in Rapid Pullups
Equivalent System Methods
Criteria Based on Equivalent Systems
Time Domain-Based Criteria
Rapid Rolls to Steep Turns
Supermaneuverability, High Angles of Attack
Unsteady Aerodynamics in the Supermaneuverability Regime
The Transfer Function Model for Unsteady Flow
The Inverse Problem
Thrust-Vector Control for Supermaneuvering
Forebody Controls for Supermaneuvering
Longitudinal Control for Recovery
Concluding Remarks
High Mach Number Difficulties
A Slow Buildup
The First Dive Pullout Problems
P-47 Dives at Wright Field
P-51 and P-39 Dive Difficulties
Transonic Aerodynamic Testing
Invention of the Sweptback Wing
Sweptback Wings Are Tamed at Low Speeds
Wing Leading-Edge Devices
Fences and Wing Engine Pylons
Trim Changes Due to Compressibility
Transonic Pitchup
Supersonic Directional Instability
Principal Axis Inclination Instability
High-Altitude Stall Buffet
Supersonic Altitude Stability
Stability and Control of Hypersonic Airplanes
Naval Aircraft Problems
Standard Carrier Approaches
Aerodynamic and Thrust Considerations
Theoretical Studies
Direct Lift Control
The T-45A Goshawk
The Lockheed S-3A Viking
Concluding Remarks
Ultralight and Human-Powered Airplanes
Apparent Mass Effects
Commercial and Kit-Built Ultralight Airplanes
The Gossamer and MIT Human-Powered Aircraft
Ultralight Airplane Pitch Stability
Turning Human-Powered Ultralight Airplanes
Concluding Remarks
Fuel Slosh, Deep Stall, and More
Fuel Shift and Dynamic Fuel Slosh
Deep Stall
Ground Effect
Directional Stability and Control in Ground Rolls
Vee- or Butterfly Tails
Control Surface Buzz
Rudder Lock and Dorsal Fins
Flight Vehicle System Identification from Flight Test
Early Attempts at Identification
Knob Twisting
Modern Identification Methods
Extensions to Nonlinearities and Unsteady Flow Regimes
Lifting Body Stability and Control
Safe Personal Airplanes
The Guggenheim Safe Airplane Competition
Progress after the Guggenheim Competition
Early Safe Personal Airplane Designs
1948 and 1966 NACA and NASA Test Series
Control Friction and Apparent Spiral Instability
Wing Levelers
The Role of Displays
Inappropriate Stability Augmentation
Unusual Aerodynamic Arrangements
Blind-Flying Demands on Stability and Control
Needle, Ball, and Airspeed
Artificial Horizon, Directional Gyro, and Autopilots
Single-Pilot IFR Operation
The Prospects for Safe Personal Airplanes
Stability and Control Issues with Variable Sweep
The First Variable-Sweep Wings - Rotation and Translation
The Rotation-Only Breakthrough
The F-111 Aardvark, or TFX
The F-14 Tomcat
The Rockwell B-1
The Oblique or Skewed Wing
Other Variable-Sweep Projects
Modern Canard Configurations
Burt Rutan and the Modern Canard Airplane
Canard Configuration Stall Characteristics
Directional Stability and Control of Canard Airplanes
The Penalty of Wing Sweepback on Low Subsonic Airplanes
Canard Airplane Spin Recovery
Other Canard Drawbacks
Pusher Propeller Problems
The Special Case of the Voyager
Modern Canard Tactical Airplanes
Evolution of the Equations of Motion
Euler and Hamilton
Linearization
Early Numerical Work
Glauert's and Later Nondimensional Forms
Rotary Derivatives
Stability Boundaries
Wind, Body, Stability, and Principal Axes
Laplace Transforms, Frequency Response, and Root Locus
The Modes of Airplane Motion
Literal Approximations to the Modes
Time Vector Analysis
Vector, Dyadic, Matrix, and Tensor Forms
Atmospheric Models
Integration Methods and Closed Forms
Steady-State Solutions
Equations of Motion Extension to Suborbital Flight
Heading Angular Velocity Correction and Initialization
Suborbital Flight Mechanics
Additional Special Forms of the Equations of Motion
The Elastic Airplane
Aeroelasticity and Stability and Control
Wing Torsional Divergence
The Semirigid Approach to Wing Torsional Divergence
The Effect of Wing Sweep on Torsional Divergence
Aileron-Reversal Theories
Aileron-Reversal Flight Experiences
Spoiler Ailerons Reduce Wing Twisting in Rolls
Aeroelastic Effects on Static Longitudinal Stability
Stabilizer Twist and Speed Stability
Dihedral Effect of a Flexible Wing
Finite-Element or Panel Methods in Quasi-Static Aeroelasticity
Aeroelastically Corrected Stability Derivatives
Mean and Structural Axes
Normal Mode Analysis
Quasi-Rigid Equations
Control System Coupling with Elastic Modes
Reduced-Order Elastic Airplane Models
Second-Order Elastic Airplane Models
Concluding Remarks
Stability Augmentation
The Essence of Stability Augmentation
Automatic Pilots in History
The Systems Concept
Frequency Methods of Analysis
Early Experiments in Stability Augmentation
The Boeing B-47 Yaw Damper
The Northrop YB-49 Yaw Damper
The Northrop F-89 Sideslip Stability Augmentor
Root Locus Methods of Analysis
Transfer-Function Numerators
Transfer-Function Dipoles
Command Augmentation Systems
Roll-Ratcheting
Superaugmentation, or Augmentation for Unstable Airplanes
Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft
The Advent of Digital Stability Augmentation
Practical Problems with Digital Systems
Tine Domain and Linear Quadratic Optimization
Linear Quadratic Gaussian Controllers
Failed Applications of Optimal Control
Robust Controllers, Adaptive Systems
Robust Controllers, Singular Value Analysis
Decoupled Controls
Integrated Thrust Modulation and Vectoring
Concluding Remarks
Flying Qualities Research Moves with the Times
Empirical Approaches to Pilot-Induced Oscillations
Compensatory Operation and Model Categories
Crossover Model
Pilot Equalization for the Crossover Model
Algorithmic (Linear Optimal Control) Model
The Crossover Model and Pilot-Induced Oscillations
Gibson Approach
Neal-Smith Approach
Bandwidth-Phase Delay Criteria
Landing Approach and Turn Studies
Implications for Modern Transport Airplanes
Concluding Remarks
Challenge of Stealth Aerodynamics
Faceted Airframe Issues
Parallel-Line Planform Issues
Shielded Vertical Tails and Leading-Edge Flaps
Fighters Without Vertical Tails
Very Large Aircraft
The Effect of Higher Wing Loadings
The Effect of Folding Wings
Altitude Response During Landing Approach
Longitudinal Dynamics
Roll Response of Large Airplanes
Large Airplanes with Reduced-Static Longitudinal Stability
Large Supersonic Airplanes
Concluding Remarks
Work Still to Be Done
Short Biographies of Some Stability and Control Figures
References and Core Bibliography
Index