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Human Impacts on Weather and Climate

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ISBN-10: 0521600561

ISBN-13: 9780521600569

Edition: 2nd 2007 (Revised)

Authors: William R. Cotton, Roger A. Pielke

List price: $79.95
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Description:

This new edition of Human Impacts on Weather and Climate examines the scientific and political debates surrounding anthropogenic impacts on the Earth's climate and presents the most recent theories, data and modeling studies. The book discusses the concepts behind deliberate human attempts to modify the weather through cloud seeding, as well as inadvertent modification of weather and climate on the regional scale. The natural variability of weather and climate greatly complicates our ability to determine a clear cause-and-effect relationship to human activity. The authors describe the basic theories and critique them in simple and accessible terms. This fully revised edition will be a…    
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Book details

List price: $79.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 2/1/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 332
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.430
Language: English

Roberta Brandes Gratzis an award-winning journalist, urban critic, and author of the acclaimed bookThe Living City. Her articles have appeared in theWall Street Journal,New York Times Magazine,The Nation,Tikkun,Planning Magazine, and theDaily News, among others. She lives in New York City.Roger Pielke, Jr., is a professor of environmental studies at the University of Colorado. The author ofThe Honest Broker, he lives in Boulder, Colorado.

Acknowledgments
The rise and fall of the science of weather modification by cloud seeding
The rise of the science of weather modification by cloud seeding
Project Cirrus
The glory years of weather modification
Introduction
The static mode of cloud seeding
The dynamic mode of cloud seeding
Introduction
Fundamental concepts
Modification of warm clouds
Introduction
Basic physical concepts of precipitation formation in warm clouds
Strategies for enhancing rainfall from warm clouds
Hail suppression
Introduction
Basic concepts of hailstorms and hail formation
Hail suppression concepts
Field confirmation of hail suppression techniques
Modification of tropical cyclones
Basic conceptual model of hurricanes
The Stormfury modification hypothesis
Stormfury field experiments
The fall of the science of weather modification by cloud seeding
Inadvertent human impacts on regional weather and climate
Anthropogenic emissions of aerosols and gases
Cloud condensation nuclei and precipitation
Aircraft contrails
Ice nuclei and precipitation
Other pollution effects
Dust
Direct radiative forcing
Indirect effects of dust
Urban-induced changes in precipitation and weather
Introduction
Urban increases in CCN and IN concentrations and spectra
The glaciation mechanism
Impact of urban land use on precipitation and weather
Observed cloud morphology and frequency
Clouds and precipitation deduced from radar studies
Other land-use/land-cover changes
Landscape effects
Surface effects
Boundary-layer effects
Local wind circulations
Vertical perspective
Mesoscale and regional horizontal perspective
Influence of irrigation
Colorado
Nebraska
Dryland agriculture: Oklahoma
Desertification
Historical overview
North Africa
Western Australia
Middle East
Deforestation
Historical perspective
Amazon
Africa
Regional vegetation feedbacks
Conclusion
Concluding remarks regarding deliberate and inadvertent human impacts on regional weather and climate
Human impacts on global climate
Overview of global climate forcings and feedbacks
Overview
Atmospheric radiation
Absorption and scattering by gases
Absorption and scattering by aerosols
Absorption and scattering by clouds
Global energy balance and the greenhouse effect
Changes in solar luminosity and orbital parameters
Natural variations in aerosols and dust
Surface properties
Assessment of the relative radiative effect of carbon dioxide and water vapor
Climate feedbacks
Water vapor feedbacks
Cloud feedbacks
Surface albedo feedbacks
Ocean feedbacks
Views of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the National Research Council of climate forcings
Climatic effects of anthropogenic aerosols
Introduction
Direct aerosol effects
Aerosol impacts on clouds: the Twomey effect
Aerosols in mixed-phase clouds and climate
Aerosols, deep convection, and climate
Nuclear winter
Introduction
The nuclear winter hypothesis: its scientific basis
The war scenarios
Smoke production
Vertical distribution of smoke
Scavenging and sedimentation of smoke
Water injection and mesoscale responses
Other mesoscale responses
Global climatic responses
Biological effects
Summary of the status of the nuclear winter hypothesis
Global effects of land-use/land-cover change and vegetation dynamics
Land-use/land-cover changes
Historical land-use change
Global perspective
Quantifying land-use/land-cover forcing of climate
Atmosphere-vegetation interactions
The abrupt desertification of the Sahara
Epilogue
The importance and underappreciation of natural variability
The dangers of overselling
The capricious administration of science and technology
Scientific credibility and advocacy
Should society wait for hard scientific evidence?
Politics and science
Conclusions
References
Index