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Introduction to Science Studies The Philosophical and Social Aspects of Science and Technology

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ISBN-10: 0521346800

ISBN-13: 9780521346801

Edition: 1987

Authors: John M. Ziman

List price: $53.99
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Description:

Professor Ziman provides a coherent account of the different perspectives on science and technology that are normally studied under various disciplinary heads such as philosophy of science, sociology of science, and science policy. It is intended for students embarking on courses in these subjects and assumes no special knowledge of any science. It is written in a direct and simple style, and technical language is seldom introduced. It will appeal to students in a wide range of scientific disciplines and complements Professor Ziman's earlier books.
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Book details

List price: $53.99
Copyright year: 1987
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 7/23/1987
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 216
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.50" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.682
Language: English

Preface
Academic' science
Different aspects of science
The chain of discovery
'Internal' and 'external' sociologies of science
Three dimensions of 'academic' science
Academic science as 'public knowledge'
Research
Scientific knowledge
Description
Generality
Patterns of fact
Investigation
Instrumentation
Measurement
Experiment
Scientific laws
Explanation
Cause and effect
Models
Theory
Hypotheses
Problem-solving and the growth of knowledge
Validity
Epistemology
Empiricism
Phenomena and sense-data
The problem of induction
Inference
Prediction
The hypothetico-deductive method
Established knowledge
Does science describe reality?
Regulative principles of scientific work
Communication
The archival literature of science
Linkage by citation
What does a scientific paper say?
How do scientific papers get published?
Selection by peer review
The accreditation process
'Informal' communication between scientists
Authority
Recognition
Exchange of gifts--or competition?
Specialization
Invisible colleges
Stratification
Functions and dysfunctions of authority
Rules and norms
Behaving as a scientist
The Mertonian norms
An ethos of academic science
Does academic science have an ideology?
Change
Cognitive change
Institutional change
Change by revolution
The historical structure of scientific revolutions
The sociodynamics of scientific life
The sociology of scientific knowledge
Science and the sociology of knowledge
Epistemological relativism
The 'strong programme' in the sociology of knowledge
Science as a social enterprise
Establishing a consensus
Sociological epistemology
Science and technology
Science as an instrument
Science-based technology
Technology-based sciences
Scientific technique
Science or technology
Science from technology?
'S and T'
Pure and applied science
'R and D' in 'S and T'
Growth
Amateurism and state patronage
The rise of academic science
The external relations of academic science
Industrial science
Pure science--and its applications
Collectivized science
Societal demand
Apparatus
Sophistication and aggregation
Collaboration
The collectivization of science
R and D organizations
Science as an instrument of policy
The spectrum of relevance
The philosophy and methods of R and D
The management of R and D
The internal sociology of collectivized science
The economics of research
Costing the benefits
Macroeconomics of R and D
The sources of invention
The microeconomics of research
Economic incentives for R and D
Science and the State
Government support for science
The politics of science
Criteria for choice
The dilemma of patronage
The limits of control
Science in government
The scientist in society
Towards a social psychology of science
The scientist as intellectual entrepreneur
Citizen of the republic of science
The scientist as technical worker
The scientist as expert
Social responsibility in science
Science as a cultural resource
Beyond the instrumental mode
Public understanding of science
Folk science, pseudo-science and parascience
Academic scientism
Science and values
The value of science
Index