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Archaeology Theories, Methods and Practice

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ISBN-10: 0500276056

ISBN-13: 9780500276051

Edition: 1991

Authors: Colin Renfrew, Paul Bahn

List price: $34.95
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The third edition of this best-selling introduction to what archaeologists do and how they do it has been entirely revised and updated in the light of new views, discoveries, and data. Developments in the technology and scope of archaeology are reflected in an increased emphasis on aspects ranging from GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and information on the Internet to gender archaeology and the latest thinking on post-processualism and cognitive archaeology. The profound impact of advances in genetics and linguistics is assessed, and some sections of the book -- the dating of rock art, for example -- have been totally rewritten in the light of recent events.
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Book details

List price: $34.95
Copyright year: 1991
Publisher: Thames & Hudson
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 544
Size: 7.48" wide x 9.06" long
Weight: 2.398

Prefacep. 9
Introduction: The Nature and Aims of Archaeologyp. 12
The Framework of Archaeologyp. 19
The Searchers: The History of Archaeologyp. 21
The Speculative Phasep. 22
The Beginnings of Modern Archaeologyp. 26
Classification and Consolidationp. 36
A Turning Point in Archaeologyp. 40
World Archaeologyp. 42
Summaryp. 52
Further Readingp. 52
Box Features
Pompeii: Archaeology Past and Presentp. 24
The Impact of Evolutionary Thoughtp. 28
19th-century Pioneers of North American Archaeologyp. 30
The Development of Field Techniquesp. 33
Women Pioneers of Archaeologyp. 38
Processual Archaeology: Key Conceptsp. 41
Interpretive or Postprocessual Archaeologiesp. 44
Interpretive Archaeologies at Catalhoyukp. 46
Broadening the Framep. 48
What is Left? The Variety of the Evidencep. 53
Basic Categories of Archaeological Evidencep. 53
Formation Processesp. 56
Cultural Formation Processes - How People Have Affected What Survives in the Archaeological Recordp. 58
Natural Formation Processes - How Nature Affects What Survives in the Archaeological Recordp. 59
Summaryp. 74
Further Readingp. 74
Box Features
Experimental Archaeologyp. 57
Wet Preservation: The Ozette Sitep. 64
Dry Preservation: The Tomb of Tutankhamunp. 66
Cold Preservation 1: The Barrow Sitep. 69
Cold Preservation 2: The Icemanp. 70
Where? Survey and Excavation of Sites and Featuresp. 75
Discovering Archaeological Sites and Featuresp. 76
Assessing the Layout of Sites and Featuresp. 93
Excavationp. 110
Summaryp. 120
Further Readingp. 120
Box Features
The Sydney Cyprus Survey Projectp. 78
Sampling Strategiesp. 80
Archaeological Aerial Reconnaissancep. 84
Teotihuacan Mapping Projectp. 94
Multiperiod Surface Investigations at Tell Halulap. 96
Underwater Archaeologyp. 99
The Red Bay Wreck: Discovery and Excavationp. 100
Geophysical Survey at Roman Wroxeterp. 104
Measuring Magnetismp. 106
Controlled Archaeological Test Sitep. 108
When? Dating Methods and Chronologyp. 121
Relative Datingp. 122
Stratigraphyp. 122
Typological Sequencesp. 124
Linguistic Datingp. 128
Climate and Chronologyp. 129
Absolute Datingp. 132
Calendars and Historical Chronologiesp. 133
Annual Cycles: Varves and Tree-Ringsp. 136
Radioactive Clocksp. 141
Trapped Electron Dating Methodsp. 154
Calibrated Relative Methodsp. 159
Chronological Correlationsp. 165
World Chronologyp. 167
Summaryp. 174
Further Readingp. 174
Box Features
The Maya Calendarp. 134
The Principles of Radioactive Decayp. 141
The Publication of Radiocarbon Resultsp. 143
How to Calibrate Radiocarbon Datesp. 144
Dating Our African Ancestorsp. 152
Dating the Thera Eruptionp. 164
Discovering the Variety of Human Experiencep. 175
How Were Societies Organized? Social Archaeologyp. 177
Establishing the Nature and Scale of the Societyp. 178
Further Sources of Information for Social Organizationp. 186
Techniques of Study for Mobile Hunter-Gatherer Societiesp. 194
Techniques of Study for Segmentary Societiesp. 198
Techniques of Study for Chiefdoms and Statesp. 207
The Archaeology of the Individual and of Identityp. 220
The Emergence of Identity and Societyp. 223
Investigating Gender and Childhoodp. 224
The Molecular Genetics of Social Groups and Lineagesp. 228
Summaryp. 230
Further Readingp. 230
Box Features
Settlement Patterns in Mesopotamiap. 184
Ancient Ethnicity and Languagep. 193
Space and Density in Hunter-Gatherer Campsp. 197
Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysisp. 201
Early Wessexp. 202
Maya Territoriesp. 209
Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDSCAL)p. 210
Social Analysis at Moundvillep. 216
Conflict and Warfarep. 218
Gender Relations in Early Intermediate Period Perup. 226
What Was the Environment? Environmental Archaeologyp. 231
Investigating Environments on a Global Scalep. 231
Studying the Landscapep. 238
Reconstructing the Plant Environmentp. 245
Reconstructing the Animal Environmentp. 253
Reconstructing the Human Environmentp. 262
Summaryp. 274
Further Readingp. 274
Box Features
Reconstructing Climates from Sea and Ice Coresp. 233
Climatic Cycles: El Ninop. 234
Cave Sedimentsp. 240
Pollen Analysisp. 246
Elands Bay Cavep. 260
Site Catchment Analysisp. 264
Mapping the Ancient Environment: Cahokia and GISp. 266
Ancient Gardens at Kuk Swampp. 268
What Did They Eat? Subsistence and Dietp. 275
What Can Plant Foods Tell Us About Diet?p. 276
Information from Animal Resourcesp. 288
Investigating Diet, Seasonality, and Domestication from Animal Remainsp. 292
How Were Animal Resources Exploited?p. 307
Assessing Diet from Human Remainsp. 311
Summaryp. 316
Further Readingp. 316
Box Features
Paleoethnobotany: A Case Studyp. 278
Butser Experimental Iron Age Farmp. 280
Investigating the Rise of Farming in Western Asiap. 286
Taphonomyp. 290
Quantifying Animal Bonesp. 294
The Study of Animal Teethp. 297
Bison Drive Sitesp. 298
Farming Origins: A Case Studyp. 302
Shell Midden Analysisp. 306
How Did They Make and Use Tools? Technologyp. 317
Unaltered Materials: Stonep. 321
Other Unaltered Materialsp. 334
Synthetic Materialsp. 341
Archaeometallurgyp. 346
Summaryp. 356
Further Readingp. 356
Box Features
Artifacts or "Geofacts" at Pedra Furadap. 320
Raising Large Stonesp. 324
Refitting and Microwear Studies at Rekemp. 330
Woodworking in the Somerset Levelsp. 336
Metallographic Examinationp. 347
Copper Production in Perup. 350
Early Steelmaking: An Ethnoarchaeological Experimentp. 354
What Contact Did They Have? Trade and Exchangep. 357
The Study of Interactionp. 357
Discovering the Sources of Traded Goods: Characterizationp. 365
The Study of Distributionp. 374
The Study of Productionp. 382
The Study of Consumptionp. 384
Exchange and Interaction: The Complete Systemp. 385
Summaryp. 391
Further Readingp. 392
Box Features
Modes of Exchangep. 360
Materials of Prestige Valuep. 362
Analysis of Artifact Compositionp. 368
Lead Isotope Analysisp. 372
Trend Surface Analysisp. 375
Fall-off Analysisp. 378
Distribution: The Uluburun Wreckp. 380
Production: Greenstone Artifacts in Australiap. 383
Interaction Spheres: Hopewellp. 390
What Did They Think? Cognitive Archaeology, Art, and Religionp. 393
Investigating How Human Symbolizing Faculties Evolvedp. 395
Working with Symbolsp. 399
From Written Source to Cognitive Mapp. 403
Establishing Place: The Location of Memoryp. 406
Measuring the Worldp. 408
Planning: Maps for the Futurep. 409
Symbols of Organization and Powerp. 412
Symbols for the Other World: The Archaeology of Religionp. 414
Depiction: Art and Representationp. 420
Summaryp. 428
Further Readingp. 428
Box Features
Indications of Early Thoughtp. 398
Paleolithic Cave Artp. 400
Paleolithic Portable Artp. 402
Maya Symbols of Powerp. 414
Recognizing Cult Activity at Chavinp. 418
Identifying Individual Artists in Ancient Greecep. 422
Conventions of Representation in Egyptian Artp. 424
The Interpretation of Swedish Rock Art: Archaeology as Textp. 426
A Question of Stylep. 427
Who Were They? What Were They Like? The Archaeology of Peoplep. 429
Identifying Physical Attributesp. 430
Assessing Human Abilitiesp. 440
Disease, Deformity, and Deathp. 446
Assessing Nutritionp. 459
Population Studiesp. 460
Diversity and Evolutionp. 463
Questions of Identityp. 467
Summaryp. 468
Further Readingp. 468
Box Features
Spitalfields: Determining Biological Age at Deathp. 434
How to Reconstruct the Facep. 438
Looking Inside Bodiesp. 448
Life and Death Among the Inuitp. 452
Lindow Man: The Body in the Bogp. 456
Genetics and Language Historiesp. 462
Studying the Origins of New World Populationsp. 464
Why Did Things Change? Explanation in Archaeologyp. 469
Migrationist and Diffusionist Explanationsp. 471
The Processual Approachp. 473
Applicationsp. 475
The Form of Explanation: General or Particularp. 481
Attempts at Explanation: One Cause or Several?p. 484
Postprocessual or Interpretive Explanationp. 494
Cognitive-Processual Archaeologyp. 496
Agency, Materiality, and Engagementp. 501
Summaryp. 503
Further Readingp. 504
Box Features
Diffusionist Explanation Rejected: Great Zimbabwep. 472
Molecular Genetics and Population Dynamics: Europep. 476
The Origins of Farming: A Processual Explanationp. 478
Marxist Archaeology: Key Featuresp. 480
Language Families and Language Changep. 482
Origins of the State 1: Perup. 488
Origins of the State 2: The Aegean, A Multivariate Approachp. 490
The Classic Maya Collapsep. 492
Explaining the European Megalithsp. 498
The Individual as an Agent of Changep. 502
The World of Archaeologyp. 505
Archaeology in Action Five Case Studiesp. 507
The Oaxaca Projects: The Origins and Rise of the Zapotec Statep. 508
The Calusa of Florida: A Complex Hunter-Gatherer Societyp. 517
Research Among Hunter-Gatherers: Kakadu National Park, Australiap. 523
Khok Phanom Di: The Origins of Rice Farming in Southeast Asiap. 530
York and the Public Presentation of Archaeologyp. 536
Further Readingp. 546
Whose Past? Archaeology and the Publicp. 547
The Meaning of the Past: The Archaeology of Identityp. 547
Who Owns the Past?p. 550
The Uses of the Pastp. 556
Conservation and Destructionp. 560
Who Interprets and Presents the Past?p. 572
Archaeology and Public Understandingp. 573
Summaryp. 578
Further Readingp. 578
Box Features
The Politics of Destruction: The Bamiyan Buddhasp. 549
The Fortunes of Warp. 551
Applied Archaeology: Farming in Perup. 558
The Practice of CRM in the United Statesp. 561
Conservation: The Great Temple of the Aztecs in Mexico Cityp. 566
Destruction and Response: Mimbresp. 568
"Collectors Are the Real Looters"p. 570
Archaeology and the Internetp. 574
Archaeology at the Fringep. 576
Glossaryp. 579
Notes and Bibliographyp. 588
Acknowledgmentsp. 635
Indexp. 638
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