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Meteorology Understanding the Atmosphere

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ISBN-10: 0495108928

ISBN-13: 9780495108924

Edition: 2nd 2007

Authors: Steven Ackerman, John A. Knox

List price: $265.95
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Description:

An entirely new way for students to observe, analyze, and understand meteorology, - Steven A. Ackerman and John A. Knox's METEOROLOGY: UNDERSTANDING THE ATMOSPHERE is scientific, topical, and scholarly. The authors use vivid photographs and compelling real-life stories to present the subject of weather as it directly affects your students. METEOROLOGY generates genuine enthusiasm for the subject by using conceptual models and engaging narrative to truly make weather phenomena come alive. METEOROLOGY emphasizes how we observe the atmosphere and then uses those observations to explain atmospheric phenomena. New "Observational Questions" further extend this emphasis by asking students to analyze photographs, data, or their own experiences. By learning how to interpret scientific observations of the atmosphere, students can deepen their understanding of the subject. The second edition offers complete integration with MeteorologyNow?, the first assessment-driven and student-centered online learning solution created specifically for this course. MeteorologyNow? uses a series of chapter-specific diagnostic tests to build a personalized learning plan for each student, allowing students to focus their study time on specific areas of weaknesses. Each personalized learning plan directs students to specific text sections as well as to a set of over three dozen Java applets designed to augment their understanding. These acclaimed applets, designed by Tom Whittaker and co-author Steven Ackerman, are divided into two types, "Observational Learning" applets deal with interpreting satellite imagery and "Atmospheric Explorations" extend the book's treatment of key topics, such as weather map analysis and numerical weather models.
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Book details

List price: $265.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Brooks/Cole
Publication date: 3/8/2006
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 528
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.684

John Knox is currently Assistant Research Scientist and Lecturer in the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at the University of Georgia. In addition to his teaching experience at the University of Georgia, Knox has also taught meteorology at Valparaiso University and Barnard College of Columbia University. A National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellow in meteorology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and Rhodes Scholar finalist, he received a B.S. summa cum laude in mathematics in 1988 from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and a Ph.D. in atmospheric science in 1996 from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He was a post-doctoral fellow in climate systems at Columbia University in conjunction with the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA/GISS) in New York City. Knox has been very active in geoscience education, with articles published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, the Journal of Geoscience Education, Mathematical Geology, The Physics Teacher, and the Journal of College Science Teaching, for which he has also served on JCST's Board of Advisors. His research in atmospheric dynamics includes journal articles on Rossby waves, non-linear balance, clear-air turbulence, and cyclone-induced windstorms, and is currently supported by NASA.

Preface
Introduction to the Atmosphere
Introduction
Weather and Climate
The Earth's Major Surface Features
Making an Atmosphere: Gases and Gravity
Atmospheric Evolution and Composition
Moist Air Is Lighter Than Dry Air
Trace Gases and Aerosols
Carbon Dioxide Cycle
Hydrologic Cycle
Methane
Chlorofluorocarbons
Aerosols
Atmospheric Pressure and Density
Basic Concepts
The Ideal Gas Law
Pressure and Altitude
Why Do Your Ears Pop?
Dividing Up the Atmosphere
An Introduction to Weather Maps
Basic Concepts
The Station Model
Time Zones
Weather Watches, Warnings, and Advisories
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
The Energy Cycle
Introduction
Force, Work, and Heat
Transferring Energy in the Atmosphere
Conduction: Requires Touching
Convection: Hot Air Rises
Temperature Advection: Horizontal Movement
Latent Heating: Changing the Phase of Water
Radiative Heat Transfer: Exchanging Energy with Space
Ozone
The Sun and the Seasons
Radiative Properties of the Atmosphere
The Greenhouse Effect
Greenhouse Warming: The Basics
Satellite Images
The Global Average Energy Budget: Energy Is Transferred from the Surface to the Atmosphere
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Temperature
Introduction
Surface Temperature
Surface Energy Budget
Temperature Cycles
Annual Temperature Cycle
Interannual Temperature Variations
Volcanoes and Temperature
Diurnal Temperature Cycle
Temperature Variation with Height: Lapse Rates and Static Stability
Record Cold and Record Heat Across the United States
Adiabatic Cooling and Warming
The Environmental Lapse Rate and Static Stability
Temperature Inversions
Wind-Chill Temperature
Temperature and Agriculture
Temperature and Your Health
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Water in the Atmosphere
Introduction
Evaporation: The Source of Atmospheric Water
Measuring Water Vapor in the Air
Mixing Ratio
Vapor Pressure
Relative Humidity
Atmospheric Moisture and Your Health
Dew Point/Frost Point
Condensation and Deposition: Cloud Formation
Solute and Curvature Effects
Nucleation
Cloud Particle Growth by Condensation and Deposition
Fog Formation
Lifting Mechanisms That Form Clouds
Static Stability and Cloud Development
The Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate
Conditionally Unstable Environments
Cloud Classification
Low Clouds
Precipitating Clouds
Middle Clouds
High Clouds
Clouds and the Greenhouse Effect
Cloud Composition
Precipitation
Precipitation Growth in Warm Clouds
Controlling the Weather
Collision-Coalescence
Precipitation Growth in Cold Clouds
Precipitation Types
Clouds, Lapse Rates, and Precipitation Near Mountains
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Observing the Atmosphere
Introduction
Meteorological Observations
Direct Measurements of Surface Conditions
The Meteogram
Temperature
Humidity
Pressure
GPS and Water Vapor
Wind
Precipitation
Direct Measurements of Upper-Air Weather Observations
Indirect Methods of Observing Weather
Laws of Reflection and Refraction
Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star
Scattering
Multiple Scattering and Climate Change
ASOS Indirect Sensors
Meteorological Satellite Observations
Interpreting Satellite Images
Radar Observations
Atmospheric Optics
Mirages
Halos
Dispersion of Light
Green Flash
Sundogs
Sun Pillar
Rainbows
Coronas, Glories, and the Brocken Bow
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Atmospheric Forces and Wind
Introduction
Wind Basics
Physics Basics
Newton's Second Law of Motion
Forces That Move the Air
Gravitational Force
Pressure Gradient Force
Planes and Pressure Differences
Coriolis Force
Centrifugal Force/Centripetal Acceleration
Frictional Force
Going Down the Drain with the Rossby Number-Clockwise or Counterclockwise?
Putting Forces Together: Atmospheric Force-Balances
Hydrostatic Balance
Geostrophic Balance, the Geostrophic Wind, and Buys Ballot's Law
Gradient Balance and the Gradient Wind
Adjustment to Balance
Guldberg-Mohn Balance and Buys Ballot's Law Revisited
Wind and Waves
Observations of Upper-Level and Surface Wind
Putting Force-Balances Together: The Thermal Wind
Putting Horizontal and Vertical Winds Together
Sea Breezes
Scales of Motion
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Global-Scale Winds
Introduction
What Are Conceptual Models?
Observations Our Model Should Explain
A Simple Conceptual Model of Global Circulation Patterns
Marine Stratocumulus Cloud Regions
Upper-Air Mid-Latitude Westerlies
The Poleward Transport of Energy
Seasonal Variations
Precipitation Patterns and Topography
Monsoons
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions: El Nino and Tropical Cyclones
Introduction
Oceanography
Ocean Temperature
Ocean Currents
El Nino
La Nina
Other Oscillations
Tropical Cyclones: Hurricanes and Typhoons
What Are They?
What Do They Look Like?
How and Where Do They Form?
How Are They Structured?
The "Hurricane Hunters"
What Are the Different Stages of Their "Lives"?
Naming Hurricanes
What Does a Year's Worth of Tropical Cyclones Look Like? The Record Year of 2005
How Do They Cause Destruction?
Bryan Norcross, TV Meteorologist and Hero
How Do We Observe and Forecast Tropical Cyclones?
Galveston, 1900 and New Orleans, 2005: A Tale of Two Cities and Two Deadly Hurricanes
Long-Range Tropical Cyclone Forecasting
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Air Masses and Fronts
Introduction
What Is an Air Mass?
Observations
Deadly Heat Waves
Air Mass Types
Air Mass Source Regions
Atmospheric Stability Revisited
Air Masses Affecting North America
Maritime Polar Air Masses
Continental Polar Air Masses
Arctic Air Masses
Continental Tropical Air Masses
Maritime Tropical Air Masses
Air Mass Modification
Lake-Effect Snows
Fronts
Cold Fronts
Warm Fronts
Stationary Fronts
Occluded Fronts
Drylines
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Extratropical Cyclones and Anticyclones
Introduction
A Time and Place of Tragedy
A Life Cycle of Growth and Death
Day One: Birth of an Extratropical Cyclone
Typical Extratropical Cyclone Paths
Making Cyclones and Waves
Day Two: With the Fitz
Portrait of the Cyclone as a Young Adult
Cyclones and Fronts: On the Ground
Cyclones and Fronts: In the Sky
Back with the Fitz: A Fateful Course Correction
Cyclones and Jet Streams
Day Three: The Mature Cyclone
Bittersweet Badge of Adulthood: The Occlusion Process
Cyclones and Water: Bomb and Bust
Hurricane West Wind
One of the Worst ...
"Nosedive"
Cyclone Winds in 3D: Belts, Slots, and Squalls
Day Four (and Beyond): Death
The Cyclone
The Fitzgerald
The Sailors
The Extratropical Anticyclone
Anticyclones and Another Fitzgerald Tragedy
High Pressure, Low Visibility
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Thunderstorms and Tornadoes
Introduction
What Is a Thunderstorm?
Thunderstorm Distribution
Factors Affecting Thunderstorm Growth and Development
Lifting Mechanisms
Unstable Atmosphere and Stability Indices
Vertical Wind Shear
Low-Level Jet Stream and Inversions
Types of Thunderstorms
Ordinary Single-Cell Thunderstorms
Multicell Thunderstorms
Supercell Thunderstorms
Microbursts
The Tornado
Tornado Formation and Life Cycle
Storm Chasers
Radar Observations of Tornadoes
Tornado Winds
Tornado Distribution
Tornado Outbreaks
Severe Weather Safety
The Waterspout
Tornado Safety: A Success Story
Other Thunderstorm Severe Weather
Lightning
Flash Floods and Flooding
Hail
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Small-Scale Winds
Introduction
Friction in the Air: Turbulent "Eddies"
Clear-Air Turbulence
A Tour of Small-Scale Winds
The East and South
Coastal Fronts and Cold-Air Damming
The Windiest Place on Earth
Gravity Waves
The Midwest
Lake Breezes
Derechos
The Great Plains
Blue Northers
Using Turbulence to Advantage: Snow Fences and Windbreaks
Heatbursts
Dust Storms and the "Dust Bowl"
Chinooks
The West
Mountain/Valley Breezes and Windstorms
Dust Devils
Lenticular Clouds
Santa Ana Winds
von Karman Vortex Street
The Big Picture
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Weather Forecasting
Introduction
Methods of Forecasting by People
Folklore
Persistence and Climatology
Personal Weather Forecasting
Trend and Analog
A Real Life-or-Death Forecast: D-Day, June 1944
L.F. Richardson and the Dawn of Numerical Weather Forecasting
Modeling the Equations of the Air
L.F. Richardson: Pioneer and Prophet
The Numerical Weather Prediction Process: Then and Now
Weather Observations
Data Assimilation
Forecast Model Integration
Forecast Tweaking and Broadcasting
"Blowing Up" a Forecast Model
Modern Numerical Weather Prediction Models
Short-Range Forecast Models
A Day in the Life of Private-Sector Meteorology
Medium-Range Forecast Models
A Real Life-or-Death Forecast: The "Storm of the Century," March 1993
The Medium-Range Forecast
The Short-Range Forecast for Washington, DC
The Short-Range Forecast for Birmingham, Alabama
The Storm of the Century Appears
A Perfect Forecast
Nowcasting in DC
The Aftermath
Why Forecasts Still Go Wrong Today
Imperfect Data
Faulty "Vision" and "Fudges"
Chaos
Improving Forecasts with Ensemble Forecasting
Pushing the Envelope: Numerical Nowcasts and Long-Range Prediction
The Proper Perspective
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Past and Present Climates
Introduction
Defining Climate
Climate Controls
Classifying Today's Climate Zones
Tropical Humid Climates
Dry Climates
Moist Subtropical and Mid-Latitude Climates
Severe Mid-Latitude Climates
Polar Climates
Highland Climates
Past Climates: The Clues
Historical Data
Tree Rings
Pollen Records
Dating Ancient Climates
Air Bubbles and Dust in Ice Sheets
Glaciers and Icebergs
Marine Sediments
Fossil Records
Past Climates: The Change Mechanisms
Volcanic Eruptions
Asteroid Impacts
Solar Variability
Variations of the Earth's Orbit: Milankovitch Cycles
Plate Tectonics
Changes in Ocean Circulation Patterns
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Human Influences on Climate
Introduction
Observations of Global Warming
Feedback Mechanisms
Air Pollution
Acid Deposition
The Stratospheric Ozone Hole
Changing Land Surfaces
Desertification
Urban Heat Islands
Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming
Global Warming and Atmospheric Water
Global Warming and the Oceans
Climate Modeling
Contrails
Climate Change Assessment
Climate Change and Health
Climate Change and Coastal Regions
Climate Change and Forests
Closure
Putting It All Together
Summary
Key Terms
Review Questions
Observation Activities
Appendix
Glossary
Credits
Index