Research Methods

ISBN-10: 0495092088

ISBN-13: 9780495092087

Edition: 7th 2007

List price: $198.95
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Description:

Donald McBurney and co-author Theresa White bring years of dedicated scholarship, research, and teaching experience to RESEARCH METHODS. This concise text puts psychological research into a larger scientific context, to show students how psychology fits into a scientific approach to understanding the world. The authors cover all stages of the research process using a step-by-step approach, from project selection, literature search and research protocol selection to publication processes. Utilizing a wide variety of problems that have been selected from psychological literature, McBurney and White successfully convey the excitement and creativity of designing and conducting research.
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Book details

List price: $198.95
Edition: 7th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 6/23/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 464
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.892
Language: English

Theresa L. White is a professor of Psychology at Le Moyne College and an adjunct associate professor in Neuroscience and Physiology at SUNY Upstate Medical University. She received her undergraduate degree in psychology from Boise State University. Both of her higher degrees in experimental psychology are from English universities; her Masters of Science degree is from Oxford University (New College) and her PhD is from the University of Warwick. Dr. White's research is concerned with cognitive aspects of olfaction, or the way that people think about smells and flavors. She currently teaches Research Methods, Sensation and Perception, and Brain and Behavior. Dr. White lives in Syracuse, New York, where winters sometimes bring more than 180 inches of snow. When the lakes are frozen, Dr. White fills her time with travel and by singing in a gospel choir. Once the water will allow it, she enjoys racing her Hobie 16 sailboat.

Psychology and Science
Ways of Knowing about Behavior
Nonempirical Methods
Empirical Methods
What Is Science?
Characteristics of Science
The Relation Between Science and Nonscience
Working Assumptions of Science
The Reality of the World
Rationality
Regularity
Discoverability
Causality
The Goals of Science
The Discovery of Regularities
The Development of Theories
The Role of Theories
Hypotheses in Science
Defining Theoretical Concepts
The Nature of Scientific Progress
A Note on Psychology and Science
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
A Case in Point
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
Developing a Research Question
Choice of a Problem
The Literature Review
Using the Internet
Guidelines for Evaluating Information from the Internet
Search Engines
Government and Organizational Web Sites
Some Individual Web Sites for Psychology
Proprietary Web Sites
Email
Psychology Databases
An Extended Internet Search Example: Waist-Hip Ratio and Attractiveness
Locating Important Articles
Inter-Library Loan
After You Locate the Important Articles
The Research Question
The Proposal
Summary
Exercises
Ethics in Research
The APA Ethics Code
Commentary on Responsibility
Commentary on Protection from Harm
Commentary on Informed Consent
Commentary on Privacy and Freedom from Coercion
Commentary on Deception
Commentary on Debriefing
Role of the Research Participant
Commentary on Ethics in Scientific Writing
Fraud in Research
Ethics and Animal Experimentation
Animal Rights and Animal Welfare
Speciesism?
The Case of the Silver Spring Monkeys
Nuts & Bolts
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
A Case in Point
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
Writing in Psychology
The Written Report
General
Avoiding Sexism and Ethnic Bias in Writing
The Parts of a Paper
Documenting Your Paper
Steps in the Publication Process
Oral Presentations
Poster Presentations
Nuts & Bolts
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
A Case in Point
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
Variables
Types of Variables
Dependent and Independent Variables
Confounded Variables
Quantitative and Categorical Variables
Continuous and Discrete Variables
Measurement
What Is Measurement?
Types of Measurement Scales
Comparison of the Scales
Measurement and Statistics?
Reliability and Validity of Measurements
Variability and Error
Validity of Measurements
Nuts & Bolts
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
A Case in Point
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
Tabular and Graphical Description of Data
Tables and Graphs of Frequency Data of One Variable
Frequency Tables
Frequency Distributions
Cumulative Frequency Distributions
Percentiles
Tables and Graphs That Show the Relationship Between Two Variables
Scattergrams
Tables with One Independent and One Dependent Variable
Graphs of Functions (Line Graphs)
Bar Graphs
Relation Between Frequency Distributions and Other Graphs
Time-Series Graphs
Indicating Variability of the Data in a Graph
Preparing Data for Analysis
Data Reduction
The Coding Guide
Checking for Invalid Data, Missing Data, and Outliers
Proceeding with the Analysis
Nuts & Bolts
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
A Case in Point
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
Validity
Types of Validity
Internal Validity
Construct Validity
External Validity
Statistical Validity
Threats to Validity
Threats to Internal Validity
Threats to Construct Validity
Threats to External Validity
Threats to Statistical Validity
Summary Note on Validity
Nuts & Bolts
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
A Case in Point
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
Control
The Concept of Control
Control Provides a Standard of Comparison
Control Reduces Variability
General Strategies
Control in the Laboratory
The Research Setting as a Preparation
Instrumentation of the Response as Control
Specific Strategies
Subject as Own Control (Within-Subjects Control)
Random Assignment
Matching
Building Nuisance Variables into the Experiment
Statistical Control
Replication, Replication
Experimental Design as Problem Solving
The Elegant Experiment
Nuts & Bolts
Summary
Suggestion for Further Reading
A Case in Point
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
Nonexperimental Research, Part 1: Observational, Archival, and Case-Study Research
The Hermeneutic Approach
Observational Research
Naturalistic Observation
Participant-Observer Research
Archival Research
Case Studies
Theory Development and Testing in Observational and Archival Research
Nuts & Bolts
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
Suggestions for Nonexperimental Research: Important Guidelines
A Case in Point
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
Nonexperimental Research, Part 2: Survey Research
How a Questionnaire Is Designed
Determine the Purpose of the Questionnaire
Determine the Types of Questions
Write the Items
Determine How the Data Will Be Analyzed
Administering the Questionnaire
Determine the Method of Administration
The Problem of Response Rate
Sampling
Types of Samples
Probability Samples and Random Selection
Summary of Sampling Procedures
Nuts & Bolts
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
A Case in Point
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
True Experiments, Part 1: Single-Factor Designs
True Experiments
Factors, Levels, Conditions, and Treatments
The Basic Elements of a Valid Experimental Design
Within-Subjects Designs
Controlling for Order and Sequence Effects
Two Conditions, Tested Within Subjects
Multiple Conditions, Tested Within Subjects
Between-Subjects Designs
Two Conditions, Tested Between Subjects
Multiple Conditions, Tested Between Subjects
Some Designs to Avoid
The One-Group Posttest-Only Design
The Posttest-Only Design with Nonequivalent Control Groups
The One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
A Case in Point
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
True Experiments, Part 2: Factorial Designs
A Simple Factorial Design
Main Effects
Interactions
Interactions and Main Effects
Types of Interactions
Within-Subjects, Between-Subjects, and Mixed Designs
Advantages of Within-Subjects Designs
Control in Within-Subjects Factorial Experiments
Some Representative Factorial Designs
Factorial, Within-Subjects
Factorial, Between-Subjects
A Mixed Factorial Design
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
A Case in Point
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
Single-Subject Experiments
Advantages of the Single-Subject Approach
Focusing on Individual Performance
Focusing on Big Effects
Avoiding Ethical and Practical Problems
Flexibility in Design
Disadvantages of the Single-Subject Approach
Basic Control Strategies in Single-Subject Research
Obtaining a Stable Baseline
Comparison (AB Design)
Withdrawal of Treatment (ABA Designs)
Repeating Treatments (ABAB Designs)
Changing Only One Variable at a Time
Using Multiple Baselines
Employing a Changing Criterion
Two Examples from Psychophysics
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
A Case in Point
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
Quasi Experiments
The Principal Difference Between Quasi Experiments and True Experiments
Other Features of Quasi Experiments
Which Is the Best Research Method?
Nonequivalent Control Group Designs
Mixed Factorial Design with One Nonmanipulated Variable
Designs Without Control Groups
Interrupted Time-Series Designs
Repeated-Treatment Designs
Designs to Test Developmental Changes
Program Evaluation
Sources of Resistance to Program Evaluations
Steps in Planning an Evaluation
Two Examples of Program Evaluation
Nuts & Bolts
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
A Case in Point
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
Epilogue: Biases and Limitations of Experimental Psychology
Biases
Science as Conservative
Science as Liberal
Limitations of Science
Essential Limitations
Practical Limitations
The Responsibilities of the Scientist
Summary Note on Biases and Limitations of Science
Summary
Suggestions for Further Reading
Reading Between the Lines
Exercises
Review of Statistics
Some Basic Terms
Descriptive Statistics
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variability
Correlation and Regression
Inferential Statistics
Sampling Distributions
Testing Hypotheses
Dealing with Uncertainty in Hypothesis Testing
The Significance of Significance
Effect Size
Analysis of Variance
Exercises
Random-Number Table
Population Data Set
Suggested Answers to "Reading Between the Lines"
Keys for Identifying Appropriate Graphs and Statistics
References
Indexes
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