Principle of Relativity

ISBN-10: 0486600815

ISBN-13: 9780486600819

Edition: N/A

Authors: Albert Einstein, Frances A. Davis

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Here are the 11 papers that forged the general and special theories of relativity: seven papers by Einstein, plus two papers by Lorentz and one each by Minkowski and Weyl. "A thrill to read again the original papers by these giants." -School Science and Mathematics.1923 edition.
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Book details

List price: $10.95
Publisher: Dover Publications, Incorporated
Publication date: 6/1/1952
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 240
Size: 5.50" wide x 8.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 0.550
Language: English

Albert Einstein, March 14, 1879 - April 18, 1955 Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm. He spent his childhood in Munich where his family owned a small machine shop. By the age of twelve, Einstein had taught himself Euclidean geometry. His family moved to Milan, where he stayed for a year, and he used it as an excuse to drop out of school, which bored him. He finished secondary school in Aarau, Switzerland and entered the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. Einstein graduated in 1900, by studying the notes of a classmate since he did not attend his classes out of boredom, again. His teachers did not like him and would not recomend him for a position in the University. For two years, Einstein worked as a substitute teacher and a tutor before getting a job, in 1902, as an examiner for a Swiss patent office in Bern. In 1905, he received his doctorate from the University of Zurich for a theoretical dissertation on the dimension of molecules. Einstein also published three theoretical papers of central importance to the development of 20th Century physics. The first was entitled "Brownian Motion," and the second "Photoelectric Effort," which was a revolutionary way of thinking and contradicted tradition. No one accepted the proposals of the first two papers. Then the third one was published in 1905 and called "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies." Einstein's words became what is known today as the special theory of relativity and said that the physical laws are the same in all inertial reference systems and that the speed of light in a vacuum is a universal constant. Virtually no one understood or supported Einstein's argument. Einstein left the patent office in 1907 and received his first academic appointment at the University of Zurich in 1909. In 1911, he moved to a German speaking University in Prague, but returned to Swiss National Polytechnic in Zurich in 1912. By 1914, Einstein was appointed director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics in Berlin. His chief patron in those early days was German physicist Max Planck and lent much credibility to Einstein's work. Einstein began working on generalizing and extending his theory of relativity, but the full general theory was not published until 1916. In 1919, he predicted that starlight would bend in the vicinity of a massive body, such as the sun. This theory was confirmed during a solar eclipse and cause Einstein to become world renowned after the phenomenon. Einstein received be Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. With his new fame, Einstein attempted to further his own political and social views. He supported pacifism and Zionism and opposed Germany's involvement in World War I. His support of Zionism earned him attacks from both Anti-Semitic and right wing groups in Germany. Einstein left Germany for the United States when Hitler came into power, taking a position at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Once there, he renounced his stand on pacifism in the face of Nazi rising power. In 1939 he collaborated with other physicists in writing a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt informing him of the possibility that the Nazis may in fact be attempting to create an atomic bomb. The letter bore only Einstein's signature but lent credence to the letter and spurred the U.S. race to create the bomb first. After the war, Einstein was active in international disarmament as well as world government. He was offered the position of President of Israel but turned the honor down. Albert Einstein died on April 18, 1955 in Princeton, New Jersey.

Michelson's Interference Experiment
The experiment
The contraction hypothesis
The contraction in relation to molecular forces
Electromagnetic Phenomena in a System Moving with any Velocity less than that of Light
Experimental evidence
Poincare's criticism of the contraction hypothesis
Maxwell's equations for moving axes
The modified vectors
Retarded potentials
Electrostatic fields
A polarized particle
Corresponding states
Momentum of an electron
The influence of the earth's motion on optical phenomena
Molecular motions
Kaufmann's experiments
On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies
Kinematical Part
Definition of simultaneity
On the relativity of lengths and times
The transformation of co-ordinates and times
Physical meaning of the equations
The composition of velocities
Electrodynamical Part
Transformation of the Maxwell-Hertz equations
Doppler's principle and aberration
The energy of light rays and the pressure of radiation
Transformation of the equations with convection currents
Dynamics of the slowly accelerated electron
Does the Inertia of a body depend upon its energy-content?
Space and Time
The invariance of the Newtonian equations and its representation in four dimensional space
The world-postulate
The representation of motion in the continuum
The new mechanics
The motion of one and two electrons
Notes on this paper
On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light
The physical nature of gravitation
The gravitation of energy
The velocity of light
Bending of light-rays
The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity
Fundamental Considerations on the Postulate of Relativity
Observations on the special theory
The need for an extension of the postulate of relativity
The space-time continuum; general co-variance
Measurement in Space and Time
Mathematical Aids to the Formulation of generally Covariant Equations
Contravariant and covariant four-vectors
Tensors of the second and higher ranks
Multiplication of tensors
The fundamental tensor g[subscript mu nu]
The equation of the geodetic line
The formation of tensors by differentiation
Some cases of special importance
The Riemann-Christoffel tensor
Theory of the Gravitational Field
Equations of motion of a material point
The field equations of gravitation in the absence of matter
The Hamiltonian function for the gravitational field. Laws of momentum and energy
The general form of the field equations
The laws of conservation
The laws of momentum and energy
Material Phenomena
Euler's equations for a fluid
Maxwell's equations for free space
Applications of the Theory
Newton's theory as a first approximation
Behaviour of rods and clocks in a static gravitational field. Bending of light rays. Motion of the perihelion of a planetary orbit
Hamilton's Principle and the General Theory of Relativity
The principle of variation and the field-equations
Separate existence of the gravitational field
Properties of the field equations conditioned by the theory of invariants
Cosmological Considerations on the General Theory of Relativity
The Newtonian theory
The boundary conditions according to the general theory of relativity
The spatially finite universe
On an additional term for the field equations of gravitation
Calculation and result
Do Gravitational Fields Play an Essential Part in the Structure of the Elementary Particles of Matter?
Defects of the present view
The field equations freed of scalars
On the cosmological question
Concluding remarks
Gravitation and Electricity
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