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Distillation Troubleshooting

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ISBN-10: 0471467448

ISBN-13: 9780471467441

Edition: 2006

Authors: Henry Z. Kister

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Book details

List price: $174.95
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 4/7/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 752
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.40" long x 1.80" tall
Weight: 2.156
Language: English

How to Use this Book
Distillation Troubleshooting Database of Published Case Histories
Troubleshooting Distillation Simulations
Close-Boiling Systems
Nonideal Systems
Nonideality Predicted in Ideal System
Nonideal VLE Extrapolated to Pure Products
Nonideal VLE Extrapolated to Different Pressures
Incorrect Accounting for Association Gives Wild Predictions
Poor Characterization of Petroleum Fractions
Chemistry, Process Sequence
Does Your Distillation Simulation Reflect the Real World?
With Second Liquid Phase
Refinery Vacuum Tower Wash Sections
Modeling Tower Feed
Simulation/Plant Data Mismatch Can Be Due to an Unexpected Internal Leak
Simulation/Plant Data Mismatch Can Be Due to Liquid Entrainment in Vapor Draw
Bug in Simulation
Graphical Techniques to Troubleshoot Simulations
McCabe-Thiele and Hengstebeck Diagrams
Multicomponent Composition Profiles
Residue Curve Maps
How Good Is Your Efficiency Estimate?
Simulator Hydraulic Predictions: To Trust or Not to Trust
Do Your Vapor and Liquid Loadings Correctly Reflect Subcool, Superheat, and Pumparounds?
How Good Are the Simulation Hydraulic Prediction Correlations?
Where Fractionation Goes Wrong
Insufficient Reflux or Stages; Pinches
No Stripping in Stripper
Unique Features of Multicomponent Distillation
Accumulation and Hiccups
Intermediate Component, No Hiccups
Intermediate Component, with Hiccups
Lights Accumulation
Accumulation between Feed and Top or Feed and Bottom
Accumulation by Recycling
Hydrates, Freeze-Ups
Two Liquid Phases
Azeotropic and Extractive Distillation
Problems Unique to Azeotroping
Problems Unique to Extractive Distillation
Energy Savings and Thermal Effects
Energy-Saving Designs and Operation
Excess Preheat and Precool
Side-Reboiler Problems
Bypassing a Feed around the Tower
Reducing Recycle
Heat Integration Imbalances
Subcooling: How It Impacts Towers
Additional Internal Condensation and Reflux
Less Loadings above Feed
Trapping Lights and Quenching
Superheat: How It Impacts Towers
Tower Sizing and Material Selection Affect Performance
Undersizing Trays and Downcomers
Oversizing Trays
Tray Details Can Bottleneck Towers
Low Liquid Loads Can Be Troublesome
Loss of Downcomer Seal
Tray Dryout
Special Bubble-Cap Tray Problems
Undersizing Packings
Systems Where Packings Perform Different from Expectations
Packed Bed Too Long
Packing Supports Can Bottleneck Towers
Packing Hold-downs Are Sometimes Troublesome
Internals Unique to Packed Towers
Empty (Spray) Sections
Feed Entry Pitfalls in Tray Towers
Does the Feed Enter the Correct Tray?
Feed Pipes Obstructing Downcomer Entrance
Feed Flash Can Choke Downcomers
Subcooled Feeds, Refluxes Are Not Always Trouble Free
Liquid and Unsuitable Distributors Do Not Work with Flashing Feeds
Flashing Feeds Require More Space
Uneven or Restrictive Liquid Split to Multipass Trays at Feeds and Pass Transitions
Oversized Feed Pipes
Plugged Distributor Holes
Low [Delta]P Trays Require Decent Distribution
Packed-Tower Liquid Distributors: Number 6 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
Better Quality Distributors Improve Performance
Original Distributor Orifice or Unspecified
Original Distributor Weir Type
Original Distributor Spray Type
Plugged Distributors Do Not Distribute Well
Pan/Trough Orifice Distributors
Pipe Orifice Distributors
Spray Distributors
Overflow in Gravity Distributors: Death to Distribution
Feed Pipe Entry and Predistributor Problems
Poor Flashing Feed Entry Bottleneck Towers
Oversized Weep Holes Generate Undesirable Distribution
Damaged Distributors Do Not Distribute Well
Broken Flanges or Missing Spray Nozzles
Hole Pattern and Liquid Heads Determine Irrigation Quality
Gravity Distributors Are Meant to Be Level
Hold-Down Can Interfere with Distribution
Liquid Mixing Is Needed in Large-Diameter Distributors
Notched Distributors Have Unique Problems
Vapor Maldistribution in Trays and Packings
Vapor Feed/Reboiler Return Maldistributes Vapor to Packing Above
Chemical/Gas Plant Packed Towers
Packed Refinery Main Fractionators
Experiences with Vapor Inlet Distribution Baffles
Packing Vapor Maldistribution at Intermediate Feeds and Chimney Trays
Vapor Maldistribution Is Detrimental in Tray Towers
Vapor Cross-Flow Channeling
Multipass Trays
Tower Base Level and Reboiler Return: Number 2 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
Causes of High Base Level
Faulty Level Measurement or Level Control
Excess Reboiler Pressure Drop
Undersized Bottom Draw Nozzle or Bottom Line
High Base Level Causes Premature Tower Flood (No Tray/Packing Damage)
High Base Liquid Level Causes Tray/Packing Damage
Impingement by the Reboiler Return Inlet
On Liquid Level
On Instruments
On Tower Wall
Opposing Reboiler Return Lines
On Trays
On Seal Pan Overflow
Undersized Bottom Feed Line
Low Base Liquid Level
Issues with Tower Base Baffles
Chimney Tray Malfunctions: Part of Number 7 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
Problem with Liquid Removal, Downcomers, or Overflows
Thermal Expansion Causing Warping, Out-of-Levelness
Chimneys Impeding Liquid Flow to Outlet
Vapor from Chimneys Interfering with Incoming Liquid
Level Measurement Problems
Coking, Fouling, Freezing
Other Chimney Tray Issues
Drawoff Malfunctions (Non-Chimney Tray): Part of Number 7 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
Vapor Chokes Liquid Draw Lines
Insufficient Degassing
Excess Line Pressure Drop
Leak at Draw Tray Starves Draw
Draw Pans and Draw Lines Plug Up
Draw Tray Damage Affects Draw Rates
Undersized Side-Stripper Overhead Lines Restrict Draw Rates
Degassed Draw Pan Liquid Initiates Downcomer Backup Flood
Other Problems with Tower Liquid Draws
Liquid Entrainment in Vapor Side Draws
Reflux Drum Malfunctions
Reflux Drum Level Problems
Undersized or Plugged Product Lines
Two Liquid Phases
Tower Assembly Mishaps: Number 5 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
Incorrect Tray Assembly
Downcomer Clearance and Inlet Weir Malinstallation
Flow Passage Obstruction and Internals Misorientation at Tray Tower Feeds and Draws
Leaking Trays and Accumulator Trays
Bolts, Nuts, Clamps
Manways/Hatchways Left Unbolted
Materials of Construction Inferior to Those Specified
Debris Left in Tower or Piping
Packing Assembly Mishaps
Fabrication and Installation Mishaps in Packing Distributors
Parts Not Fitting through Manholes
Auxiliary Heat Exchanger Fabrication and Assembly Mishaps
Auxiliary Piping Assembly Mishaps
Difficulties during Start-Up, Shutdown, Commissioning, and Abnormal Operation: Number 4 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
Blinding/Unblinding Lines
Dead-Pocket Accumulation and Release of Trapped Materials
Pressuring and Depressuring
On-Line Washes
Steam and Water Operations
Water Removal
Draining at Low Points
Oil Circulation
Condensation of Steam Purges
Dehydration by Other Procedures
Start-Up and Initial Operation
Total-Reflux Operation
Adding Components That Smooth Start-Up
Pressure Control at Start-Up
Confined Space and Manhole Hazards
Water-Induced Pressure Surges: Part of Number 3 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
Water in Feed and Slop
Accumulated Water in Transfer Line to Tower and in Heater Passes
Water Accumulation in Dead Pockets
Water Pockets in Pump or Spare Pump Lines
Undrained Stripping Steam Lines
Condensed Steam or Refluxed Water Reaching Hot Section
Oil Entering Water-Filled Region
Explosions, Fires, and Chemical Releases: Number 10 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
Explosions Due to Decomposition Reactions
Ethylene Oxide Towers
Peroxide Towers
Nitro Compound Towers
Other Unstable-Chemical Towers
Explosions Due to Violent Reactions
Explosions and Fires Due to Line Fracture
C[subscript 3]-C[subscript 4] Hydrocarbons
Water Freeze
Explosions Due to Trapped Hydrocarbon or Chemical Release
Explosions Induced by Commissioning Operations
Packing Fires
Initiated by Hot Work Above Steel Packing
Pyrophoric Deposits Played a Major Role, Steel Packing
Tower Manholes Opened While Packing Hot, Steel Packing
Others, Steel Packing Fires
Titanium, Zinconium Packing Fires
Fires Due to Opening Tower before Cooling or Combustible Removal
Fires Caused by Backflow
Fires by Other Causes
Chemical Releases by Backflow
Trapped Chemicals Released
Relief, Venting, Draining, Blowdown to Atmosphere
Undesired Reactions in Towers
Excessive Bottom Temperature/Pressure
Hot Spots
Concentration or Entry of Reactive Chemical
Chemicals from Commissioning
Catalyst Fines, Rust, Tower Materials Promote Reaction
Long Residence Times
Inhibitor Problems
Air Leaks Promote Tower Reactions
Impurity in Product Causes Reaction Downstream
What Causes or Promotes Foaming?
Solids, Corrosion Products
Corrosion and Fouling Inhibitors, Additives, and Impurities
Hydrocarbon Condensation into Aqueous Solutions
Wrong Filter Elements
Rapid Pressure Reduction
Proximity to Solution Plait Point
What Are Foams Sensitive To?
Laboratory Tests
Sample Shake, Air Bubbling
Oldershaw Column
Foam Test Apparatus
At Plant Conditions
Antifoam Injection
Effective Only at the Correct Quantity/Concentration
Some Antifoams Are More Effective Than Others
Batch Injection Often Works, But Continuous Can Be Better
Correct Dispersal Is Important, Too
Antifoam Is Sometimes Adsorbed on Carbon Beds
Other Successful Antifoam Experiences
Sometimes Antifoam Is Less Effective
System Cleanup Mitigates Foaming
Improving Filtration
Carbon Beds Mitigate Foaming But Can Adsorb Antifoam
Removing Hydrocarbons from Aqueous Solvents
Changing Absorber Solvent
Other Contaminant Removal Techniques
Hardware Changes Can Debottleneck Foaming Towers
Larger Downcomers
Smaller Downcomer Backup (Lower Pressure Drop, Larger Clearances)
More Tray Spacing
Removing Top Two Trays Does Not Help
Trays Versus Packings
Larger Packings, High-Open-Area Distributors Help
Increased Agitation
Larger Tower
Reducing Base Level
The Tower as a Filter: Part A. Causes of Plugging-Number 1 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
Piping Scale/Corrosion Products
Salting Out/Precipitation
Polymer/Reaction Products
Solids/Entrainment in the Feed
Oil Leak
Poor Shutdown Wash/Flush
Entrainment or Drying at Low Liquid Rates
The Tower as a Filter: Part B. Locations of Plugging-Number 1 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
How Packings and Trays Compare on Plugging Resistance
Trays versus Trays
Trays versus Packings
Packings versus Packings
Limited Zone Only
Draw, Exchanger, and Vent Lines
Feed and Inlet Lines
Instrument Lines
Coking: Part of Number 1 on Tower Top 10 Malfunctions
Insufficient Wash Flow Rate, Refinery Vacuum Towers
Other Causes, Refinery Vacuum Towers
Slurry Section, FCC Fractionators
Other Refinery Fractionators
Nonrefinery Fractionators
Pump, Compressor
Heat Exchanger
Reboiler Tube
Condenser Tube
Auxiliary Heat Exchanger (Preheater, Pumparound)
Chemicals to/from Other Equipment
Leaking from Tower
Leaking into Tower
Product to Product
Chemicals to Atmosphere
Air into Tower
Relief and Failure
Relief Requirements
Controls That Affect Relief Requirements and Frequency
Relief Causes Tower Damage, Shifts Deposits
Overpressure Due to Component Entry
Relief Protection Absent or Inadequate
Line Ruptures
All Indication Lost When Instrument Tap Plugged
Trips Not Activating or Incorrectly Set
Pump Failure
Loss of Vacuum
Power Loss
Tray, Packing, and Tower Damage: Part of Number 3 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
Insufficient Uplift Resistance
Uplift Due to Poor Tightening during Assembly
Uplift Due to Rapid Upward Gas Surge
Valves Popping Out
Downward Force on Trays
Trays below Feed Bent Up, above Bent Down and Vice Versa
Downcomers Compressed, Bowed, Fallen
Uplift of Cartridge Trays
Flow-Induced Vibrations
Compressor Surge
Packing Carryover
Melting, Breakage of Plastic Packing
Damage to Ceramic Packing
Damage to Other Packings
Reboilers That Did Not Work: Number 9 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
Circulating Thermosiphon Reboilers
Excess Circulation
Insufficient Circulation
Insufficient [Delta]T, Pinching
Velocities Too Low in Vertical Thermosiphons
Problems Unique to Horizontal Thermosiphons
Once-Through Thermosiphon Reboilers
Leaking Draw Tray or Draw Pan
No Vaporization/Thermosiphon
Slug Flow in Outlet Line
Forced-Circulation Reboilers
Kettle Reboilers
Excess [Delta]P in Circuit
Poor Liquid Spread
Liquid Level above Overflow Baffle
Internal Reboilers
Kettle and Thermosiphon Reboilers in Series
Side Reboilers
Inability to Start
Liquid Draw and Vapor Return Problems
Control Issues
All Reboilers, Boiling Side
Debris/Deposits in Reboiler Lines
Film Boiling
All Reboilers, Condensing Side
Non condensables in Heating Medium
Loss of Condensate Seal
Condensate Draining Problems
Vapor/Steam Supply Bottleneck
Condensers That Did Not Work
Inerts Blanketing
Inadequate Venting
Excess Lights in Feed
Inadequate Condensate Removal
Undersized Condensate Lines
Exchanger Design
Unexpected Condensation Heat Curve
Problems with Condenser Hardware
Maldistribution between Parallel Condensers
Flooding/Entrainment in Partial Condensers
Interaction with Vacuum and Recompression Equipment
Misleading Measurements: Number 8 on the Top 10 Malfunctions
Incorrect Readings
Meter or Taps Fouled or Plugged
Missing Meter
Incorrect Meter Location
Problems with Meter and Meter Tubing Installation
Incorrect Meter Installation
Instrument Tubing Problems
Incorrect Meter Calibration, Meter Factor
Level Instrument Fooled
By Froth or Foam
By Oil Accumulation above Aqueous Level
By Lights
By Radioactivity (Nucleonic Meter)
Interface-Level Metering Problems
Meter Readings Ignored
Electric Storm Causes Signal Failure
Control System Assembly Difficulties
No Material Balance Control
Controlling Two Temperatures/Compositions Simultaneously Produces Interaction
Problems with the Common Control Schemes, No Side Draws
Boil-Up on TC/AC, Reflux on FC
Boil-Up on FC, Reflux on TC/AC
Boil-Up on FC, Reflux on LC
Boil-Up on LC, Bottoms on TC/AC
Reflux on Base LC, Bottoms on TC/AC
Problems with Side-Draw Controls
Small Reflux below Liquid Draw Should Not Be on Level or Difference Control
Incomplete Material Balance Control with Liquid Draw
Steam Spikes with Liquid Draw
Internal Vapor Control makes or Breaks Vapor Draw Control
Where Do Temperature and Composition Controls Go Wrong?
Temperature Control
No Good Temperature Control Tray
Best Control Tray
Fooling by Nonkeys
Averaging (Including Double Differential)
Azeotropic Distillation
Extractive Distillation
Pressure-Compensated Temperature Controls
[Delta]T Control
Other Pressure Compensation
Analyzer Control
Obtaining a Valid Analysis for Control
Long Lags and High Off-Line Times
Intermittent Analysis
Handling Feed Fluctuations
Analyzer-Temperature Control Cascade
Analyzer On Next Tower
Misbehaved Pressure, Condenser, Reboiler, and Preheater Controls
Pressure Controls by Vapor Flow Variations
Flooded Condenser Pressure Controls
Valve in the Condensate, Unflooded Drum
Flooded Drum
Hot-Vapor Bypass
Valve in the Vapor to the Condenser
Coolant Throttling Pressure Controls
Cooling-Water Throttling
Manipulating Airflow
Steam Generator Overhead Condenser
Controlling Cooling-Water Supply Temperature
Pressure Control Signal
From Tower or from Reflux Drum?
Controlling Pressure via Condensate Temperature
Throttling Steam/Vapor to Reboiler or Preheater
Throttling Condensate from Reboiler
Preheater Controls
Miscellaneous Control Problems
Interaction with the Process
[Delta]P Control
Flood Controls and Indicators
Batch Distillation Control
Problems in the Control Engineer's Domain
Advanced Controls Problems
Updating Multivariable Controls
Advanced Controls Fooled by Bad Measurements
Issues with Model Inaccuracies
Effect of Power Dips
Experiences with Composition Predictors in Multivariable Controls
About the Author