Discovering Physical Geography

ISBN-10: 047143860X

ISBN-13: 9780471438601

Edition: 2007

Authors: Alan F. Arbogast

List price: $172.95
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A good, concise introduction to physical geography that is consistently integrated with multimedia. The primary purpose of this book is to provide the reader with an overview of the physical environment in which we live.
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Book details

List price: $172.95
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 1/9/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 656
Size: 9.50" wide x 10.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.146

Introduction to Physical Geography
The Scope of Geography
Defining Physical Geography
The Earth's Four Spheres
Organization of This Book
Exploring Cause-and-Effect Relationships
An Interactive Tool
GeoDiscoveries: Stream Meandering
Focus on Geographical Literacy
Physical Geography Is Interesting, Exciting, and Relevant to Your Life
The Big Picture
The Geographers' Tools
The Geographic Grid
Using the Geographic Grid
GeoDiscoveries: Using the Geographic Grid
Amazing Places: Big But Hard to Reach
Maps-The Basic Tool of Geographers
Map Projections
Map Scale
GeoDiscoveries: Using Maps
Digital Technology in Geography
Remote Sensing
What a Geographer Sees: Infrared Images
Global Positioning Systems
Geographic Information Systems
GeoDiscoveries: Using a Geographic Information System
The Big Picture
Earth-Sun Geometry and the Seasons
Our Place in Space
The Shape of the Earth
Amazing Places: The Sun
Earth's Orbit Around the Sun
The Earth's Rotation and Axial Tilt
The Seasons
Solstice and Equinox
GeoDiscoveries: Orbital View and Earth as Viewed from the Sun
How We See Earth-Sun Geometry on Earth
Day and Night
Seasonal Changes in Sun Position (Angle) and Length of Day
GeoDiscoveries: Celestial Dome
GeoDiscoveries: Sun Angle and Length of Day
What a Geographer Sees: Sunrise in the Southern Hemisphere
The Big Picture
The Global Energy System
The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Solar Energy
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
GeoDiscoveries: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Solar Energy and the Solar Constant
Composition of the Atmosphere
Constant Gases
Variable Gases
What a Geographer Sees: The Formation of Rainbows
The Flow of Solar Radiation on Earth
Heat Transfer
Flow of Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere
Interaction of Solar Radiation and the Earth's Surface
GeoDiscoveries: The Angle of Incidence
The Global Radiation Budget
GeoDiscoveries: The Global Energy Budget
The Big Picture
Global Temperature Patterns
Layered Structure of the Atmosphere
The Troposphere
The Stratosphere
The Mesosphere
The Thermosphere
What a Geographer Sees: Auroras
Surface and Air Temperatures
Calculating the Heat Index and Wind Chill
Large-Scale Geographic Factors That Influence Air Temperature
Amazing Places: Temperature Extremes on Earth
Local Factors That Influence Air Temperature
GeoDiscoveries: Surface Temperature
GeoDiscoveries: Maritime vs. Continental Effect
The Annual Range of Surface Temperature (Putting It All Together)
GeoDiscoveries: Temperature and Location
The Big Picture
Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, and Global Circulation
Atmospheric Pressure
Factors That Influence Air Pressure
Measuring and Mapping Air Pressure
Atmospheric Pressure Systems
Low-Pressure Systems
High-Pressure Systems
What A Geographer Sees: Migrating Pressure Systems
The Direction Of Air Flow
Unequal Heating of Land Surfaces
Pressure Gradient Force
GeoDiscoveries: Fluctuations in the Pressure Gradient
Coriolis Force
GeoDiscoveries: The Coriolis Force
Frictional Forces
Global Pressure and Atmospheric Circulation
Tropical Circulation
Midlatitude Circulation
Polar Circulation
Seasonal Migration of Pressure Systems
Amazing Places: Mt. Washington
GeoDiscoveries: Global Atmospheric Circulation
Local Wind Systems
Land-Sea Breezes
Topographic Winds
Oceanic Circulation
Gyres and Thermohaline Circulation
El Nino
GeoDiscoveries: El Nino
The Big Picture
Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation
Physical Properties of Water
Hydrogen Bonding
Thermal Properties of Water and Its Physical States
GeoDiscoveries: Latent Heat
The Hydrosphere and the Hydrologic Cycle
Maximum, Specific, and Relative Humidity
Dew-Point Temperature
Amazing Places: Death Valley
GeoDiscoveries: Atmospheric Humidity
Adiabatic Processes
The Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate
The Wet Adiabatic Lapse Rate
GeoDiscoveries: Adiabatic Processes
Cloud Formation and Classification
Cloud Classification
What a Geographer Sees: Unusual Clouds
Types of Precipitation
Precipitation Processes
GeoDiscoveries: Convectional Precipitation
GeoDiscoveries: Orographic Processes
The Big Picture
Air Masses and Cyclonic Weather Systems
Air Masses and Fronts
Air Masses
Evolution and Character of Midlatitude Cyclones
Upper Air Flow and the 500-mb Pressure Surface
Interaction of Upper Air Flow and Surface Air Flow
GeoDiscoveries: Formation of a Midlatitude Cyclone
GeoDiscoveries: Migration of a Midlatitude Cyclone
Evolution of Thunderstorms
Severe Thunderstorms
Amazing Places: Tornado Alley
GeoDiscoveries: Tornadoes
Tropical Cyclones
GeoDiscoveries: Migration of Hurricane Katrina
The Big Picture
Global Climates
Climate and the Factors That Affect It
Koppen Climate Classification
Geography of Koppen Climates
Character and Geographic Distribution of Tropical (A) Climates
What a Geographer Sees: The Relationship of Climate and Vegetation
GeoDiscoveries: The Tropical Savanna Climate (Aw)
Character and Geographic Distribution of Arid and Semi-Arid (B) Climates
Amazing Places: Atacama Desert
Character and Geographic Distribution of Mesothermal (C) Climates
GeoDiscoveries: Humid Subtropical Hot-Summer Climates (Cfa, Cwa)
GeoDiscoveries: Marine West-Coast Climates (Cfb, Cfc)
Character and Geographic Distribution of Microthermal (D) Climates
Character and Geographic Distribution of Polar (E) Climates
Character and Geographic Distribution of Highland (H) Climates
GeoDiscoveries: Remote Sensing and Climate
Global Climate Change
The Carbon Cycle
Is Anthropogenic Climate Change Really Occurring?
Predicting Future Climate Change
The Big Picture
Plant Geography
The Process of Photosynthesis
The Relationship of Climate and Vegetation: The Character and Distribution of Global Biomes
Forest Biomes
What a Geographer Sees: Wildfires
Amazing Places: The Coastal Redwoods
Grassland Biomes
Desert Biomes
Tundra Biome
Local and Regional Factors That Influence the Geographic Distribution of Vegetation
Slope and Aspect
Vertical Zonation
Plant Succession
GeoDiscoveries: Plant Succession
Riparian Zones
Human Influence on Vegetation Patterns
Deforestation and Its Consequences
GeoDiscoveries: Deforestation
Agriculture in the Midlatitude Grassland Biome
GeoDiscoveries: Remote Sensing and the Biosphere
The Big Picture
The Global Distribution and Character of Soils
What Is Soil?
Basic Soil Properties
Soil-Forming (Pedogenic) Processes
Soil-Forming Factors
Amazing Places: Buried Soils at the Eustis Ash Pit in Nebraska
Measurable Soil Characteristics
What a Geographer Sees: Soil Conservation on Steep Slopes
Soil Chemistry
Soil pH
Colloids and Cation Exchange
Soil Profiles (Reading the Soil)
Time and Soil Evolution
Soil Science and Classification
The Twelve Soil Orders
GeoDiscoveries: African Climate, Vegetation, and Soils
GeoDiscoveries: Regional Pedogenic Processes
GeoDiscoveries: North American Climate, Vegetation, and Soils
The Big Picture
Earth's Internal Structure, Rock Cycle, and Geologic Time
Earth's Inner Structure
The Major Layers
Rocks and Minerals In The Earth's Crust
Igneous Rocks
What a Geographer Sees: Exposed Igneous Intrusions
Sedimentary Rocks
Metamorphic Rocks
The Rock Cycle
GeoDiscoveries: The Rock Cycle
Geologic Time
GeoDiscoveries: Geologic Time
Telling Geologic Time
Putting Geologic Time in Perspective
Amazing Places: The Grand Canyon
Integrating Geologic Time and the Rock Cycle: The Spanish Peaks
Basic Geomorphology of Continents and Ocean Basins
Alpine Chains
Continental Shields
The Big Picture
Tectonic Processes and Landforms
Plate Tectonics
The Lithospheric Plates
Plate Movement
Types of Plate Movement
Passive Plate Margins
GeoDiscoveries: Continental Drift
Transform Plate Margins
Plate Divergence
Amazing Places: Olduvai Gorge
Plate Convergence
GeoDiscoveries: Folding
GeoDiscoveries: Plate Tectonics
Earthquake Processes
Locating the Epicenter
Measuring Earthquake Magnitude
Types of Faults
GeoDiscoveries: Types of Faults
Explosive Volcanoes
What a Geographer Sees: Crater Lake
Fluid Volcanoes and Hotspots
GeoDiscoveries: Volcanoes
The Big Picture
Weathering and Mass Movement
Mechanical Weathering
What a Geographer Sees: The Long-Term Effects of Weathering and Erosion on Mountains
Amazing Places: Anasazi Cliff Dwellings Chemical Weathering
GeoDiscoveries: Weathering
Mass Wasting
Soil Creep
GeoDiscoveries: Weathering and Mass Movements
The Big Picture
Groundwater and Karst Landscapes
Movement and Storage of Groundwater
The High Plains Aquifer
Amazing Places: Oases in the Sahara Desert
Groundwater Contamination
GeoDiscoveries: Hydrologic Cycle and Groundwater
Karst Landforms and Landscapes
Caves and Caverns
Karst Topography
Amazing Places: Tower Karst in China
The Big Picture
Fluvial Systems and Landforms
Overland Flow and Drainage Basins
Origin of Streams
Drainage Basins
Drainage Patterns, Density, and Stream Ordering
GeoDiscoveries: The Rhine River
Hydraulic Geometry and Channel Flow
Stream Discharge
Fluvial Processes and Landforms
Erosion and Deposition
Stream Gradation
Amazing Places: Waterfalls
GeoDiscoveries: The Graded Stream
Evolution of Stream Valleys and Floodplains
GeoDiscoveries: Stream Meandering
What a Geographer Sees: Mississippi River Meanders
Other Depositional Landforms Associated with Streams
Human Interactions with Streams
Artificial Levees
Dams and Reservoirs
The Big Picture
Glacial Geomorphology: Processes and Landforms
Development of a Glacier
The Metamorphosis of Snow to Glacial Ice
The Glacial Mass Budget
Glacial Movement
Types of Glaciers
Glaciers in Mountainous Regions
Amazing Places: The Vatnajokull Ice Cap
Continental Glaciers
Glacial Landforms
Landforms Made by Glacial Erosion
Deposition of Glacial Drift and Resulting Landforms
History of Glaciation
How Many Pleistocene Glaciations Were There?
The Wisconsin Glaciation and the Evolution of the Great Lakes
What a Geographer Sees: The Channeled Scablands in Eastern Washington
What Causes Glaciation?
Glacial Periods and Earth-Sun Geometry
GeoDiscoveries: The Milankovitch Theory
Impact of Global Climate Change on Glaciers
Periglacial Processes and Landscapes
Ground Ice and Associated Landforms
The Big Picture
Arid Landscapes and Eolian Processes
Arid Landscapes
Desert Geomorphology
Eolian Erosion and Transport
The Fluid Behavior of Wind and Sediment Transport
Eolian Erosional Landforms
Eolian Deposition and Landforms
How Sand Dunes Form
Types of Sand Dunes
Amazing Places: Great Sand Dunes National Monument
GeoDiscoveries: Eolian Processes and Landforms
What a Geographer Sees: Sand Dunes on Mars
Human Interactions with Eolian Processes
Desertification in the African Sahel
Desertification in the Great Plains of the United States: The Dust Bowl
The Big Picture
Coastal Processes and Landforms
Oceans and Seas on the Earth
The Nature of Coastlines: Intersection of Earth's Spheres
Processes That Shape the Coastline
Amazing Places: Big Waves in Hawaii
Coastal Landforms
Erosional Coastlines
What a Geographer Sees: Marine Terraces on San Clemente Island, California
Depositional Coastlines
GeoDiscoveries: Longshore Processes and Depositional Coastlines
Human Imapcts on Coastlines
Coastal Engineering
Global Climate Change and the Impact on Coastlines
Photo Credits
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