Thyristor-Based FACTS Controllers for Electrical Transmission Systems

ISBN-10: 0471206431

ISBN-13: 9780471206439

Edition: 2002

Authors: R. Mohan Mathur, Rajiv K. Varma

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This volume bas both in-depth presentation of theoretical concepts and an adequate exposure of practical details. It is replete with examples and case studies on control design and performance.
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Book details

List price: $182.00
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 2/27/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 496
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.892
Language: English

Introduction
Background
Electrical Transmission Networks
Conventional Control Mechanisms
Automatic Generation Control (AGC)
Excitation Control
Transformer Tap-Changer Control
Phase-Shifting Transformers
Flexible ac Transmission Systems (FACTS)
Advances in Power-Electronics Switching Devices
Principles and Applications of Semiconductor Switches
Emerging Transmission Networks
References
Reactive-Power Control in Electrical Power Transmission Systems
Reactive Power
Uncompensated Transmission Lines
A Simple Case
Lossless Distributed Parameter Lines
Passive Compensation
Shunt Compensation
Series Compensation
Effect on Power-Transfer Capacity
Summary
References
Principles of Conventional Reactive-Power Compensators
Introduction
Synchronous Condensers
Configuration
Applications
The Saturated Reactor (SR)
Configuration
Operating Characteristics
The Thyristor-Controlled Reactor (TCR)
The Single-Phase TCR
The 3-Phase TCR
The Thyristor-Switched Reactor (TSR)
The Segmented TCR
The 12-Pulse TCR
Operating Characteristics of a TCR
The Thyristor-Controlled Transformer (TCT)
The Fixed Capacitor--Thyristor-Controlled Reactor (FC-TCR)
Configuration
Operating Characteristic
The Mechanically Switched Capacitor--Thyristor-Controlled Reactor (MSC-TCR)
The Thyristor-Switched Capacitor (TSC)
Switching a Capacitor to a Voltage Source
Switching a Series Connection of a Capacitor and Reactor
Turning Off of the TSC Valve
The TSC Configuration
Operating Characteristic
The Thyristor-Switched Capacitor--Thyristor-Controlled Reactor (TSC-TCR)
Configuration
Operating Characteristic
Current Characteristic
Susceptance Characteristic
Mismatched TSC--TCR
A Comparison of Different SVCs
Losses
Performance
Summary
References
SVC Control Components and Models
Introduction
Measurement Systems
Voltage Measurement
The Demodulation Effect of the Voltage-Measurement System
Current Measurement
Power Measurement
The Requirements of Measurement Systems
The Voltage Regulator
The Basic Regulator
The Phase-Locked Oscillator (PLO) Voltage Regulator
The Digital Implementation of the Voltage Regulator
Gate-Pulse Generation
The Linearizing Function
Delays in the Firing System
The Synchronizing System
Additional Control and Protection Functions
The Damping of Electromechanical Oscillations
The Susceptance (Reactive-Power) Regulator
The Control of Neighboring Var Devices
Undervoltage Strategies
The Secondary-Overvoltage Limiter
The TCR Overcurrent Limiter
TCR Balance Control
The Nonlinear Gain and the Gain Supervisor
Modeling of SVC for Power-System Studies
Modeling for Load-Flow Studies
Modeling for Small- and Large-Disturbance Studies
Modeling for Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) Studies
Modeling for Electromagnetic Transient Studies
Modeling for Harmonic-Performance Studies
Summary
References
Concepts of SVC Voltage Control
Introduction
Voltage Control
V-I Characteristics of the SVC
Voltage Control by the SVC
Advantages of the Slope in the SVC Dynamic Characteristic
Influence of the SVC on System Voltage
Design of the SVC Voltage Regulator
Effect of Network Resonances on the Controller Response
Critical Power-System Parameters
Sensitivity to Power-System Parameters
Sensitivity to TCR Operating Point
Choice of Transient Gain
Certain Features of the SVC Response
Methods for Improving the Voltage-Controller Response
The 2nd Harmonic Interaction Between the SVC and ac Network
Influence of the 2nd Harmonic Voltage on the TCR
Causes of 2nd Harmonic Distortion
TCR Balance Control
Application of the SVC to Series-Compensated ac Systems
ac System--Resonant Modes
SVC Transient Response With Series-Compensated ac-Transmission Lines
Effect of the Shunt-Reactor Mode on the SVC Voltage Controller
3rd Harmonic Distortion
Voltage-Controller Design Studies
Modeling Aspects
Special Performance-Evaluation Studies
Study Methodologies for Controller Design
Summary
References
SVC Applications
Introduction
Increase in Steady-State Power-Transfer Capacity
Enhancement of Transient Stability
Power-Angle Curves
Synchronizing Torque
Modulation of the SVC Bus Voltage
Augmentation of Power-System Damping
Principle of the SVC Auxiliary Control
Torque Contributions of SVC Controllers
Design of an SVC PSDC
Composite Signals for Damping Control
Alternative Techniques for the Design of SVC Auxiliary Controllers
SVC Mitigation of Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR)
Principle of SVC Control
Configuration and Design of the SVC Controller
Rating of an SVC
Prevention of Voltage Instability
Principles of SVC Control
Configuration and Design of the SVC Controller
Rating of an SVC
Improvement of HVDC Link Performance
Principles and Applications of SVC Control
Configuration and Design of the SVC Controller
Rating of the SVC
Summary
References
The Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)
Series Compensation
Fixed-Series Compensation
The Need for Variable-Series Compensation
Advantages of the TCSC
The TCSC Controller
Operation of the TCSC
Basic Principle
Modes of TCSC Operation
The TSSC
Analysis of the TCSC
Capability Characteristics
The Single-Module TCSC
The Multimodule TCSC
Harmonic Performance
Losses
Response of the TCSC
Modeling of the TCSC
Variable-Reactance Model
An Advanced Transient-Stability Studies Model
Discrete and Phasor Models
Modeling for Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) Studies
Summary
References
TCSC Applications
Introduction
Open-Loop Control
Closed-Loop Control
Constant-Current (CC) Control
Constant-Angle (CA) Control
Enhanced Current Control
Constant-Power Control
Enhanced Power Control
Firing Schemes and Synchronization
Improvement of the System-Stability Limit
Enhancement of System Damping
Principle of Damping
Bang-Bang Control
Auxiliary Signals for TCSC Modulation
Case Study for Multimodal Decomposition--Based PSDC Design
H[subscript [infinity] Method--Based PSDC Design
Alternative Techniques for PSDC Design
Placement of the TCSC
Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) Mitigation
TCSC Impedance at Subsynchronous Frequencies
A Case Study
Voltage-Collapse Prevention
TCSC Installations
Imperatriz--Serra da Mesa TCSCs in Brazil
Stode TCSC in Sweden
Summary
References
Coordination of FACTS Controllers
Introduction
Controller Interactions
Steady-State Interactions
Electromechanical-Oscillation Interactions
Control or Small-Signal Oscillations
Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) Interactions
High-Frequency Interactions
The Frequency Response of FACTS Controllers
SVC-SVC Interaction
The Effect of Electrical Coupling and Short-Circuit Levels
The System Without Series Compensation
The System With Series Compensation
High-Frequency Interactions
Additional Coordination Features
SVC-HVDC Interaction
SVC-TCSC Interaction
Input Signal of the TCSC-PSDC With Bus Voltage
Input Signal of the TCSC-PSDC With a System Angle
High-Frequency Interactions
TCSC-TCSC Interaction
The Effect of Loop Impedance
High-Frequency Interaction
Performance Criteria for Damping-Controller Design
Coordination of Multiple Controllers Using Linear-Control Techniques
The Basic Procedure for Controller Design
Controller Coordination for Damping Enhancement
Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR)-Based Technique
Constrained Optimization
Nonlinear-Constrained Optimization of a Selective-Model-Performance Index
Global Coordination Using Nonlinear-Constrained Optimization
Control Coordination Using Genetic Algorithms
Coordination of Multiple Controllers Using Nonlinear-Control Techniques
Summary
References
Emerging FACTS Controllers
Introduction
The STATCOM
The Principle of Operation
The V-I Characteristic
Harmonic Performance
Steady-State Model
SSR Mitigation
Dynamic Compensation
The SSSC
The Principle of Operation
The Control System
Applications
The UPFC
The Principle of Operation
Applications
Comparative Evaluation of Different FACTS Controllers
Performance Comparison
Cost Comparison
Future Direction of FACTS Technology
The Role of Communications
Control-Design Issues
Summary
References
Design of an SVC Voltage Regulator
Study System
Method of System Gain
Eigenvalue Analysis
Step Response
Power-Transfer Studies
Simulator Studies
Step-Response Studies
Power-Transfer Limits
A Comparison of Physical Simulator Results With Analytical and Digital Simulator Results Using Linearized Models
References
Transient-Stability Enhancement in a Midpoint SVC-Compensated SMIB System
Approximate Multimodal Decomposition Method for the Design of FACTS Controllers
Introduction
Modal Analysis of the ith Swing Mode, [lambda subscript i]
Effect of the Damping Controller
Implications of Different Transfer Functions
Controllability
Observability
The Inner Loop
Design of the Damping Controller
The Controller-Phase Index (CPI)
The Maximum Damping Influence (MDI) Index
The Natural Phase Influence (NPI) Index
References
FACTS Terms and Definitions
Definitions of Basic Terms
Definitions of Facts Controller Terms
Reference
Index
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