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Antenna Fundamentals and Definitions | |

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Introduction | |

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How Antennas Radiate | |

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Overview of Antennas | |

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Electromagnetic Fundamentals | |

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Solution of Maxwell's Equations for Radiation Problems | |

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The Ideal Dipole | |

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Radiation Patterns | |

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Radiation Pattern Basics | |

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Radiation from Line Currents | |

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Far-Field Conditions and Field Regions | |

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Steps in the Evaluation of Radiation Fields | |

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Radiation Pattern Definitions | |

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Radiation Pattern Parameters | |

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Directivity and Gain | |

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Antenna Impedance, Radiation Efficiency, and the Short Dipole | |

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Antenna Polarization | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Some Simple Radiating Systems and Antenna Practice | |

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Electrically Small Dipoles | |

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Dipoles | |

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Antennas Above a Perfect Ground Plane | |

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Image Theory | |

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Monopoles | |

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Small Loop Antennas | |

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Duality | |

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The Small Loop Antenna | |

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Antennas in Communication Systems | |

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Practical Considerations for Electrically Small Antennas | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Arrays | |

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The Array Factor for Linear Arrays | |

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Uniformly Excited, Equally Spaced Linear Arrays | |

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The Array Factor Expression | |

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Main Beam Scanning and Beamwidth | |

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The Ordinary Endfire Array | |

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The Hansen-Woodyard Endfire Array | |

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Pattern Multiplication | |

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Directivity of Uniformly Excited, Equally Spaced Linear Arrays | |

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Nonuniformly Excited, Equally Spaced Linear Arrays | |

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Mutual Coupling | |

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Impedance Effects of Mutual Coupling | |

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Array Pattern Evaluation Including Mutual Coupling | |

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Multidimensional Arrays | |

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Phased Arrays and Array Feeding Techniques | |

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Scan Principles | |

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Feed Networks for Beam Scanning | |

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Scan Blindness | |

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Perspective on Arrays | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Line Sources | |

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The Uniform Line Source | |

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Tapered Line Sources | |

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Fourier Transform Relations Between the Far-Field Pattern and the Source Distribution | |

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Superdirective Line Sources | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Resonant Antennas: Wires and Patches | |

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Dipole Antennas | |

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Straight Wire Dipoles | |

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The Vee Dipole | |

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Folded Dipole Antennas | |

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Feeding Wire Antennas | |

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Yagi-Uda Antennas | |

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Corner Reflector Antennas | |

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Wire Antennas Above an Imperfect Ground Plane | |

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Pattern Effects of a Real Earth Ground Plane | |

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Ground Plane Construction | |

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Large Loop Antennas | |

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Microstrip Antennas | |

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Microstrip Patch Antennas | |

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Microstrip Arrays | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Broadband Antennas | |

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Traveling-Wave Wire Antennas | |

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Helical Antennas | |

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Normal Mode Helix Antenna | |

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Axial Mode Helix Antenna | |

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Biconical Antennas | |

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Infinite Biconical Antenna | |

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Finite Biconical Antenna | |

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Discone Antenna | |

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Sleeve Antennas | |

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Sleeve Monopoles | |

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Sleeve Dipoles | |

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Principles of Frequency-Independent Antennas | |

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Spiral Antennas | |

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Equiangular Spiral Antenna | |

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Archimedean Spiral Antenna | |

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Conical Equiangular Spiral Antenna | |

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Related Configurations | |

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Log-Periodic Antennas | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Aperture Antennas | |

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Radiation from Apertures and Huygens' Principle | |

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Rectangular Apertures | |

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The Uniform Rectangular Aperture | |

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Tapered Rectangular Apertures | |

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Techniques for Evaluating Gain | |

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Directivity | |

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Gain and Efficiencies | |

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Simple Directivity Formulas | |

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Rectangular Horn Antennas | |

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H-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna | |

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E-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna | |

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Pyramidal Horn Antenna | |

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Circular Apertures | |

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The Uniform Circular Aperture | |

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Tapered Circular Apertures | |

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Reflector Antennas | |

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Parabolic Reflector Antenna Principles | |

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Axisymmetric Parabolic Reflector Antenna | |

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Offset Parabolic Reflectors | |

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Dual Reflector Antennas | |

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Cross-Polarization and Scanning Properties of Reflector Antennas | |

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Gain Calculations for Reflector Antennas | |

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Other Reflector Antennas | |

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Feed Antennas for Reflectors | |

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Field Representations | |

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Matching the Feed to the Reflector | |

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A General Feed Model | |

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Feed Antennas Used in Practice | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Antenna Synthesis | |

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The Synthesis Problem | |

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Formulation of the Synthesis Problem | |

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Synthesis Principles | |

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Line Source Shaped Beam Synthesis Methods | |

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Fourier Transform Method | |

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Woodward-Lawson Sampling Method | |

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Linear Array Shaped Beam Synthesis Methods | |

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Fourier Series Method | |

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Woodward-Lawson Sampling Method | |

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Comparison of Shaped Beam Synthesis Methods | |

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Low Side-Lobe, Narrow Main Beam Synthesis Methods | |

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Dolph-Chebyshev Linear Array Method | |

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Taylor Line Source Method | |

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Perspective | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Antennas in Systems and Antenna Measurements | |

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Receiving Properties of Antennas | |

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Antenna Noise Temperature and Radiometry | |

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Radar | |

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Reciprocity and Antenna Measurements | |

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Pattern Measurement and Antenna Ranges | |

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Gain Measurement | |

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Gain Measurement of CP Antennas | |

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Gain Estimation | |

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Polarization Measurement | |

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Polarization Pattern Method | |

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Spinning Linear Method | |

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Dual-Linear Method | |

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Field Intensity Measurements | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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CEM for Antennas: The Method of Moments | |

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Introduction to Computational Electromagnetics | |

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Introduction to the Method of Moments | |

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Pocklington's Integral Equation | |

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Integral Equations and Kirchhoff's Network Equations | |

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Source Modeling | |

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Weighted Residuals and the Method of Moments | |

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Two Alternative Approaches to the Method of Moments | |

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Reaction | |

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Linear Algebra Formulation of MoM | |

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Formulation and Computational Considerations | |

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Other Expansion and Weighting Functions | |

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Other Electric Field Integral Equations for Wires | |

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Computer Time Considerations | |

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Toeplitz Matrices | |

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Block Toeplitz Matrices | |

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Compressed Matrices | |

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Validation | |

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Calculation of Antenna and Scatterer Characteristics | |

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The Wire Antenna or Scatterer as an N-Port Network | |

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Series Connections | |

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Parallel Connections | |

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Antenna Arrays | |

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The Linear Array | |

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The Circular Array | |

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Two-Dimensional Planar Array of Dipoles | |

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Summary | |

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Radar Cross Section of Antennas | |

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Modeling of Solid Surfaces | |

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Wire-Grid Model | |

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Continuous Surface Model | |

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Summary | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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CEM for Antennas: Finite Difference Time Domain Method | |

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Maxwell's Equations for the FD-TD Method | |

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Three-Dimensional Problem Formulation | |

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Two-Dimensional Problem Formulation | |

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One-Dimensional Problem Formulation | |

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Finite Differences and the Yee Algorithm | |

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Cell Size, Numerical Stability, and Dispersion | |

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Computer Algorithms and FD-TD Implementation | |

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Absorbing Boundary Conditions | |

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Source Conditions | |

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Source Functionality | |

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The Hard Source | |

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The Soft Source | |

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Total-Field/Scattered-Field Formulation | |

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Pure Scattered-Field Formulation | |

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Near Fields and Far Fields | |

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A Two-Dimensional Example: An E-Plane Sectoral Horn Antenna | |

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Antenna Analysis and Applications | |

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Impedance, Efficiency, and Gain | |

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The Monopole over a PEC Ground Plane | |

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The Vivaldi Slotline Array | |

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Summary | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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CEM for Antennas: High-Frequency Methods | |

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Geometrical Optics | |

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Wedge Diffraction Theory | |

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The Ray-Fixed Coordinate System | |

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A Uniform Theory of Wedge Diffraction | |

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E-Plane Analysis of Horn Antennas | |

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Cylindrical Parabolic Antenna | |

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Radiation by a Slot on a Finite Ground Plane | |

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Radiation by a Monopole on a Finite Ground Plane | |

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Equivalent Current Concepts | |

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A Multiple Diffraction Formulation | |

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Diffraction by Curved Surfaces | |

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Extension of Moment Methods Using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction | |

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Physical Optics | |

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Method of Stationary Phase | |

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Physical Theory of Diffraction | |

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Cylindrical Parabolic Reflector Antenna-PTD | |

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Summary | |

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References | |

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Problems | |

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Tables of Commonly Used Frequencies | |

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Radio Frequency Bands | |

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Television Channel Frequencies | |

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Mobile Telephone Bands | |

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Radar Bands | |

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Data Material and Other Constants | |

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Conductivities of Good Conductors | |

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Wire Data | |

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Dielectric Constant: Permittivity | |

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Permeability | |

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Velocity of Light | |

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Intrinsic Impedance of Free Space | |

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Vectors | |

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Unit Vector Representations | |

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Vector Identities | |

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Vector Differential Operators | |

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Trigonometric Relations | |

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Hyperbolic Relations | |

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Useful Mathematical Relations | |

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Dirac Delta Function | |

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Binomial Theorem | |

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Bessel Functions | |

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Some Useful Integrals | |

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Computing Packages | |

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General Antenna Pagkage: APV | |

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Array Plotting Package: PCARRPAT | |

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Wire Antenna Code: WIRE | |

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Parabolic Reflector Antenna Code: PRAC | |

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Diffraction Codes | |

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Bibliography | |

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Index | |