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Preface to the Second Edition | |

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Perfect Crystals | |

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Lattice Geometry | |

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The Unit Cell | |

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Lattice Planes and Directions | |

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The Weiss Zone Law | |

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Symmetry Elements | |

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Translational Symmetry | |

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Rotational Symmetry | |

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Reflection Symmetry | |

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Restrictions on Symmetry Elements | |

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Possible Combinations of Rotational Symmetries | |

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Crystal Systems | |

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Space Lattices (Bravais Lattices) | |

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Problems | |

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Suggestions for Further Reading | |

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References | |

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Point Groups and Space Groups | |

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Macroscopic Symmetry Elements | |

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Orthorhombic System | |

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Tetragonal System | |

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Cubic System | |

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Hexagonal System | |

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Trigonal System | |

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Monoclinic System | |

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Triclinic System | |

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Special Forms in the Crystal Classes | |

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Enantiomorphous Crystal Classes | |

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Laue Groups | |

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Space Groups | |

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Nomenclature for Point Groups and Space Groups | |

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Groups, Subgroups and Supergroups | |

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An Example of a Three-Dimensional Space Group | |

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Problems | |

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Suggestions for Further Reading | |

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References | |

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Crystal Structures | |

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Introduction | |

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Common Metallic Structures | |

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Cubic Close-Packed (Fm3m) | |

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Hexagonal Close-Packed (P6<sub>3</sub>/mmc) | |

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Double Hexagonal Close-Packed (P6<sub>3</sub>/mmc) | |

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Body-Centred Cubic (Im3m) | |

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Related Metallic Structures | |

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Indium (I4/mmm) | |

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Mercury (R3m) | |

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ï¿½-Sn (I4<sub>1</sub>/and) | |

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Other Elements and Related Compounds | |

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Diamond (Fd3m) | |

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Graphite (P6<sub>3</sub>/mmc) | |

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Hexagonal Boron Nitride (P6<sub>3</sub>/mmc) | |

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Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth (R3m) | |

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Simple MX and MX<sub>2</sub> Compounds | |

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Sodium Chloride, NaCl (Fm3m) | |

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Caesium Chloride, CsCl (Pm3m) | |

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Sphalerite, ï¿½-ZnS (F43m) | |

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Wurtzite, ï¿½-ZnS (P6<sub>3</sub>mc) | |

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Nickel Arsenide, NiAs (P6<sub>3</sub>/mmc) | |

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Calcium Fluoride, CaF<sub>2</sub> (Fm3m) | |

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Rutile, TiO<sub>2</sub> (P4<sub>2</sub>/mnm) | |

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Other Inorganic Compounds | |

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Perovskite (Pm3m) | |

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ï¿½-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (R3c), FeTiO<sub>3</sub> (R3) and LiNbO<sub>3</sub> (R3c) | |

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Spinel (Fd3m), Inverse Spinel and Related Structures | |

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Garnet (Ia3d) | |

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Calcite, CaCO<sub>3</sub> (R3c) | |

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Interatomic Distances | |

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Solid Solutions | |

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Polymers | |

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Additional Crystal Structures and their Designation | |

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Problems | |

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Suggestions for Further Reading | |

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References | |

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Amorphous Materials and Special Types of Crystal-Solid Aggregates | |

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introduction | |

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Amorphous Materials | |

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Liquid Crystals | |

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Nematic Phases | |

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Cholesteric Phases | |

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Smectic Phases | |

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Geometry of Polyhedra | |

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Icosahedral Packing | |

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Quasicrystals | |

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A Little Recent History and a New Definition | |

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Incommensurate Structures | |

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Foams, Porous Materials and Cellular Materials | |

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Problems | |

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Suggestions for Further Reading | |

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References | |

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Tensors | |

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Nature of a Tensor | |

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Transformation of Components of a Vector | |

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Dummy Suffix Notation | |

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Transformation of Components of a Second-Rank Tensor | |

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Definition of a Tensor of the Second Rank | |

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Tensor, of the Second Rank Referred to Principal Axes | |

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Limitations Imposed by Crystal Symmetry for Second-Rank Tensors | |

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Representation Quadric | |

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Radius-Normal Property of the Representation Quadric | |

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Third- and Fourth-Rank Tensors | |

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Problems | |

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Suggestions for Further Reading | |

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References | |

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Strain, Stress, Piezoelectricity and Elasticity | |

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Strain: Introduction | |

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Infinitesimal Strain | |

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Stress | |

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Piezoelectricity | |

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Class 2 | |

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Class 222 | |

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Class 23 | |

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Class 432 | |

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The Converse Effect | |

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Elasticity of Crystals | |

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Class 1 | |

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Class 2 | |

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Class 222 | |

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Class 23 | |

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Problems | |

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Suggestions for Further Reading | |

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References | |

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Imperfect Crystals | |

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Glide and Texture | |

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Translation Glide | |

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Glide Elements | |

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Independent Slip Systems | |

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Large Strains of Single Crystals: The Choice of Glide System | |

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Large Strains: The Change in the Orientation of the Lattice During Glide | |

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Texture | |

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Problems | |

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Suggestions for Further Reading | |

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References | |

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Dislocations | |

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Introduction | |

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Dislocation Motion | |

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The Force on a Dislocation | |

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The Distortion in a Dislocated Crystal | |

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Atom Positions Close to a Dislocation | |

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The Interaction of Dislocations with One Another | |

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Problems | |

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Suggestions for Further Reading | |

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References | |

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Dislocations in Crystals | |

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The Strain Energy of a Dislocation | |

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Stacking Faults and Partial Dislocations | |

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Dislocations in C.C.P. Metals | |

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Dislocations in the Rock Salt Structure | |

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Dislocations in Hexagonal Metals | |

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Dislocations in B.C.C. Crystals | |

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Dislocations in Some Covalent Solids | |

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Dislocations in Other Crystal Structures | |

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Problems | |

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Suggestions for Further Reading | |

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References | |

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Point Defects | |

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Introduction | |

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Point Defects in Ionic Crystals | |

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Point Defect Aggregates | |

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Point Defect Configurations | |

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Experiments on Point Defects in Equilibrium | |

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Experiments on Quenched Metals | |

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Radiation Damage | |

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Anelasticity and Point Defect Symmetry | |

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Problems | |

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Suggestions for Further Reading | |

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References | |

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Twinning | |

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Introduction | |

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Description of Deformation Twinning | |

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Examples of Twin Structures | |

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C.C.P. Metals | |

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B.C.C. Metals | |

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Sphalerite (Zinc Blende) | |

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Calcite | |

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Hexagonal Metals | |

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Graphite | |

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Twinning Elements | |

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The Morphology of Deformation Twinning | |

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Problems | |

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Suggestions for Further Reading | |

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References | |

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Martensitic Transformations | |

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Introduction | |

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General Crystallographic Features | |

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Transformation in Cobalt | |

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Transformation in Zirconium | |

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Transformation of Indium-Thallium Alloys | |

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Transformations in Steels | |

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Transformations in Copper Alloys | |

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Transformations in Ni-Ti-Based Alloys | |

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Transformations in Nonmetals | |

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Crystallographic Aspects of Nucleation and Growth | |

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Problems | |

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Suggestions for Further Reading | |

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References | |

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Crystal Interfaces | |

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The Structure of Surfaces and Surface Free Energy | |

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Structure and Energy of Grain Boundaries | |

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Interface Junctions | |

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The Shapes of Crystals and Grains | |

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Boundaries between Different Phases | |

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Strained Layer Epitaxy of Semiconductors | |

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Problems | |

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Suggestions for Further Reading | |

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References | |

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Crystallographic Calculations | |

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Vector Algebra | |

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The Scalar Product | |

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The Vector Product | |

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The Reciprocal Lattice | |

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Matrices | |

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Rotation Matrices and Unit Quaternions | |

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References | |

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The Stereographic Projection | |

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Principles | |

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Constructions | |

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To Construct a Small Circle | |

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To Find the Opposite of a Pole | |

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To Draw a Great Circle through Two Poles | |

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To Find the Pole of a Great Circle | |

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To Measure the Angle between two Poles on an inclined Great Circle | |

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Constructions with the Wulff Net | |

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Two-Surface Analysis | |

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Proof of the Properties of the Stereographic Projection | |

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References | |

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Interplanar Spacings and Interplanar Angles | |

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Interplanar Spacings | |

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Triclinic | |

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Monoclinic | |

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Orthorhombic | |

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Trigonal | |

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Tetragonal | |

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Hexagonal | |

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Cubic | |

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Interplanar Angles | |

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Orthorhombic | |

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Hexagonal | |

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Cubic | |

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Transformation of Indices Following a Change of Unit Cell | |

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Change of Indices of Directions | |

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Change of Indices of Planes | |

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Example 1: Interchange of Hexagonal and Orthorhombic Indices for Hexagonal Crystals | |

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Example 2: Interchange of Rhombohedral and Hexagonal Indices | |

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Slip Systems in C.C.P. and B.C.C. Crystals | |

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Independent Glide Systems in C.C.P. Metals | |

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Example: Slip Along [110] on the (111) Slip Plane | |

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Number of Independent Glide Systems | |

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Diehl's Rule and the OILS Rule | |

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Use of Diehl's Rule for {111} <110> Slip (Such as C.C.P. Metals) | |

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Use of Diehl's Rule for {110} <111> Slip (Such as B.C.C. Metals) | |

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The OILS Rule | |

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Proof of Diehl's Rule and the OILS Rule | |

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References | |

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Homogeneous Strain | |

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Simple Extension | |

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Simple Shear | |

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Pure Shear | |

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The Relationship between Pure Shear and Simple Shear | |

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Crystal Structure Data | |

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Crystal Structures of the Elements, Interatomic Distances and Six-Fold Coordination-Number Ionic Radii | |

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Crystals with the Sodium Chloride Structure | |

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Crystals with the Caesium Chloride Structure | |

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Crystals with the Sphalerite Structure | |

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Crystals with the Wurtzite Structure | |

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Crystals with the Nickel Arsenide Structure | |

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Crystals with the Fluorite Structure | |

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Crystals with the Rutile Structure | |

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Further Resources | |

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Useful Web Sites | |

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Computer Software Packages | |

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Brief Solutions to Selected Problems | |

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Index | |