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Crystallography and Crystal Defects

ISBN-10: 0470750146

ISBN-13: 9780470750148

Edition: 2nd 2011

Authors: Anthony A. Kelly, Kevin M. Knowles

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Description:

This new edition updates readers with the latest concepts of crystallography in a clear, succinct manner, and describes their application in line and planar defects in crystalline materials, quasicrystals, and crystal interfaces. The coverage begins with a chapter on lattice geometry, followed by crystal systems and crystal structures. Tensors, stresses, strain, and elasticity and plasticity in crystals are then discussed, along with dislocations in crystals. Point defects, deformation twinning, and martensitic transformations are covered in chapters nine to eleven, before the book concludes by considering interfaces in crystals.
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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2011
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 2/9/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 536
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.958
Language: English

Preface to the Second Edition
Perfect Crystals
Lattice Geometry
The Unit Cell
Lattice Planes and Directions
The Weiss Zone Law
Symmetry Elements
Translational Symmetry
Rotational Symmetry
Reflection Symmetry
Restrictions on Symmetry Elements
Possible Combinations of Rotational Symmetries
Crystal Systems
Space Lattices (Bravais Lattices)
Problems
Suggestions for Further Reading
References
Point Groups and Space Groups
Macroscopic Symmetry Elements
Orthorhombic System
Tetragonal System
Cubic System
Hexagonal System
Trigonal System
Monoclinic System
Triclinic System
Special Forms in the Crystal Classes
Enantiomorphous Crystal Classes
Laue Groups
Space Groups
Nomenclature for Point Groups and Space Groups
Groups, Subgroups and Supergroups
An Example of a Three-Dimensional Space Group
Problems
Suggestions for Further Reading
References
Crystal Structures
Introduction
Common Metallic Structures
Cubic Close-Packed (Fm3m)
Hexagonal Close-Packed (P6<sub>3</sub>/mmc)
Double Hexagonal Close-Packed (P6<sub>3</sub>/mmc)
Body-Centred Cubic (Im3m)
Related Metallic Structures
Indium (I4/mmm)
Mercury (R3m)
�-Sn (I4<sub>1</sub>/and)
Other Elements and Related Compounds
Diamond (Fd3m)
Graphite (P6<sub>3</sub>/mmc)
Hexagonal Boron Nitride (P6<sub>3</sub>/mmc)
Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth (R3m)
Simple MX and MX<sub>2</sub> Compounds
Sodium Chloride, NaCl (Fm3m)
Caesium Chloride, CsCl (Pm3m)
Sphalerite, �-ZnS (F43m)
Wurtzite, �-ZnS (P6<sub>3</sub>mc)
Nickel Arsenide, NiAs (P6<sub>3</sub>/mmc)
Calcium Fluoride, CaF<sub>2</sub> (Fm3m)
Rutile, TiO<sub>2</sub> (P4<sub>2</sub>/mnm)
Other Inorganic Compounds
Perovskite (Pm3m)
�-Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (R3c), FeTiO<sub>3</sub> (R3) and LiNbO<sub>3</sub> (R3c)
Spinel (Fd3m), Inverse Spinel and Related Structures
Garnet (Ia3d)
Calcite, CaCO<sub>3</sub> (R3c)
Interatomic Distances
Solid Solutions
Polymers
Additional Crystal Structures and their Designation
Problems
Suggestions for Further Reading
References
Amorphous Materials and Special Types of Crystal-Solid Aggregates
introduction
Amorphous Materials
Liquid Crystals
Nematic Phases
Cholesteric Phases
Smectic Phases
Geometry of Polyhedra
Icosahedral Packing
Quasicrystals
A Little Recent History and a New Definition
Incommensurate Structures
Foams, Porous Materials and Cellular Materials
Problems
Suggestions for Further Reading
References
Tensors
Nature of a Tensor
Transformation of Components of a Vector
Dummy Suffix Notation
Transformation of Components of a Second-Rank Tensor
Definition of a Tensor of the Second Rank
Tensor, of the Second Rank Referred to Principal Axes
Limitations Imposed by Crystal Symmetry for Second-Rank Tensors
Representation Quadric
Radius-Normal Property of the Representation Quadric
Third- and Fourth-Rank Tensors
Problems
Suggestions for Further Reading
References
Strain, Stress, Piezoelectricity and Elasticity
Strain: Introduction
Infinitesimal Strain
Stress
Piezoelectricity
Class 2
Class 222
Class 23
Class 432
The Converse Effect
Elasticity of Crystals
Class 1
Class 2
Class 222
Class 23
Problems
Suggestions for Further Reading
References
Imperfect Crystals
Glide and Texture
Translation Glide
Glide Elements
Independent Slip Systems
Large Strains of Single Crystals: The Choice of Glide System
Large Strains: The Change in the Orientation of the Lattice During Glide
Texture
Problems
Suggestions for Further Reading
References
Dislocations
Introduction
Dislocation Motion
The Force on a Dislocation
The Distortion in a Dislocated Crystal
Atom Positions Close to a Dislocation
The Interaction of Dislocations with One Another
Problems
Suggestions for Further Reading
References
Dislocations in Crystals
The Strain Energy of a Dislocation
Stacking Faults and Partial Dislocations
Dislocations in C.C.P. Metals
Dislocations in the Rock Salt Structure
Dislocations in Hexagonal Metals
Dislocations in B.C.C. Crystals
Dislocations in Some Covalent Solids
Dislocations in Other Crystal Structures
Problems
Suggestions for Further Reading
References
Point Defects
Introduction
Point Defects in Ionic Crystals
Point Defect Aggregates
Point Defect Configurations
Experiments on Point Defects in Equilibrium
Experiments on Quenched Metals
Radiation Damage
Anelasticity and Point Defect Symmetry
Problems
Suggestions for Further Reading
References
Twinning
Introduction
Description of Deformation Twinning
Examples of Twin Structures
C.C.P. Metals
B.C.C. Metals
Sphalerite (Zinc Blende)
Calcite
Hexagonal Metals
Graphite
Twinning Elements
The Morphology of Deformation Twinning
Problems
Suggestions for Further Reading
References
Martensitic Transformations
Introduction
General Crystallographic Features
Transformation in Cobalt
Transformation in Zirconium
Transformation of Indium-Thallium Alloys
Transformations in Steels
Transformations in Copper Alloys
Transformations in Ni-Ti-Based Alloys
Transformations in Nonmetals
Crystallographic Aspects of Nucleation and Growth
Problems
Suggestions for Further Reading
References
Crystal Interfaces
The Structure of Surfaces and Surface Free Energy
Structure and Energy of Grain Boundaries
Interface Junctions
The Shapes of Crystals and Grains
Boundaries between Different Phases
Strained Layer Epitaxy of Semiconductors
Problems
Suggestions for Further Reading
References
Crystallographic Calculations
Vector Algebra
The Scalar Product
The Vector Product
The Reciprocal Lattice
Matrices
Rotation Matrices and Unit Quaternions
References
The Stereographic Projection
Principles
Constructions
To Construct a Small Circle
To Find the Opposite of a Pole
To Draw a Great Circle through Two Poles
To Find the Pole of a Great Circle
To Measure the Angle between two Poles on an inclined Great Circle
Constructions with the Wulff Net
Two-Surface Analysis
Proof of the Properties of the Stereographic Projection
References
Interplanar Spacings and Interplanar Angles
Interplanar Spacings
Triclinic
Monoclinic
Orthorhombic
Trigonal
Tetragonal
Hexagonal
Cubic
Interplanar Angles
Orthorhombic
Hexagonal
Cubic
Transformation of Indices Following a Change of Unit Cell
Change of Indices of Directions
Change of Indices of Planes
Example 1: Interchange of Hexagonal and Orthorhombic Indices for Hexagonal Crystals
Example 2: Interchange of Rhombohedral and Hexagonal Indices
Slip Systems in C.C.P. and B.C.C. Crystals
Independent Glide Systems in C.C.P. Metals
Example: Slip Along [110] on the (111) Slip Plane
Number of Independent Glide Systems
Diehl's Rule and the OILS Rule
Use of Diehl's Rule for {111} <110> Slip (Such as C.C.P. Metals)
Use of Diehl's Rule for {110} <111> Slip (Such as B.C.C. Metals)
The OILS Rule
Proof of Diehl's Rule and the OILS Rule
References
Homogeneous Strain
Simple Extension
Simple Shear
Pure Shear
The Relationship between Pure Shear and Simple Shear
Crystal Structure Data
Crystal Structures of the Elements, Interatomic Distances and Six-Fold Coordination-Number Ionic Radii
Crystals with the Sodium Chloride Structure
Crystals with the Caesium Chloride Structure
Crystals with the Sphalerite Structure
Crystals with the Wurtzite Structure
Crystals with the Nickel Arsenide Structure
Crystals with the Fluorite Structure
Crystals with the Rutile Structure
Further Resources
Useful Web Sites
Computer Software Packages
Brief Solutions to Selected Problems
Index