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Fundamental Principles of Optical Lithography The Science of Microfabrication

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ISBN-10: 0470727306

ISBN-13: 9780470727300

Edition: 2008

Authors: Chris Mack

List price: $86.00
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Description:

The fabrication of an integrated circuit requires a variety of physical and chemical processes to be performed on a semiconductor substrate. In general, these processes fall into three categories: film deposition, patterning, and semiconductor doping. Films of both conductors and insulators are used to connect and isolate transistors and their components. By creating structures of these various components millions of transistors can be built and wired together to form the complex circuitry of modern microelectronic devices. Fundamental to all of these processes is lithography, i.e., the formation of three-dimensional relief images on the substrate for subsequent transfer of the pattern to the substrate. This book presents a complete theoretical and practical treatment of the topic of lithography for both students and researchers. This sole-authored text includes optional computer simulation exercises as well as problems at the end of each chapter.
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Book details

List price: $86.00
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/17/2007
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 534
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.442
Language: English

Preface
Introduction to Semiconductor Lithography
Basics of IC Fabrication
Patterning
Etching
Ion Implantation
Process Integration
Moore's Law and the Semiconductor Industry
Lithography Processing
Substrate Preparation
Photoresist Coating
Post-Apply Bake
Alignment and Exposure
Post-exposure Bake
Development
Postbake
Measure and Inspect
Pattern Transfer
Strip
Problems
Aerial Image Formation - The Basics
Mathematical Description of Light
Maxwell's Equations and the Wave Equation
General Harmonic Fields and the Plane Wave in a Nonabsorbing Medium
Phasors and Wave Propagation in an Absorbing Medium
Intensity and the Poynting Vector
Intensity and Absorbed Electromagnetic Energy
Basic Imaging Theory
Diffraction
Fourier Transform Pairs
Imaging Lens
Forming an Image
Imaging Example: Dense Array of Lines and Spaces
Imaging Example: Isolated Space
The Point Spread Function
Reduction Imaging
Partial Coherence
Oblique Illumination
Partially Coherent Illumination
Hopkins Approach to Partial Coherence
Sum of Coherent Sources Approach
Off-Axis Illumination
Imaging Example: Dense Array of Lines and Spaces Under Annular Illumination
Kohler Illumination
Incoherent Illumination
Some Imaging Examples
Problems
Aerial Image Formation - The Details
Aberrations
The Causes of Aberrations
Describing Aberrations: the Zernike Polynomial
Aberration Example - Tilt
Aberration Example - Defocus, Spherical and Astigmatism
Aberration Example - Coma
Chromatic Aberrations
Strehl Ratio
Pupil Filters and Lens Apodization
Flare
Measuring Flare
Modeling Flare
Defocus
Defocus as an Aberration
Defocus Example: Dense Lines and Spaces and Three-Beam Imaging
Defocus Example: Dense Lines and Spaces and Two-Beam Imaging
Image Isofocal Point
Focus Averaging
Reticle Defocus
Rayleigh Depth of Focus
Imaging with Scanners Versus Steppers
Vector Nature of Light
Describing Polarization
Polarization Example: TE Versus TM Image of Lines and Spaces
Polarization Example: The Vector PSF
Polarization Aberrations and the Jones Pupil
Immersion Lithography
The Optical Invariant and Hyper-NA Lithography
Immersion Lithography and the Depth of Focus
Image Quality
Image CD
Image Placement Error (Distortion)
Normalized Image Log-Slope (NILS)
Focus Dependence of Image Quality
Problems
Imaging in Resist: Standing Waves and Swing Curves
Standing Waves
The Nature of Standing Waves
Standing Waves for Normally Incident Light in a Single Film
Standing Waves in a Multiple-Layer Film Stack
Oblique Incidence and the Vector Nature of Light
Broadband Illumination
Swing Curves
Reflectivity Swing Curve
Dose-to-Clear and CD Swing Curves
Swing Curves for Partially Coherent Illumination
Swing Ratio
Effective Absorption
Bottom Antireflection Coatings
BARC on an Absorbing Substrate
BARCs at High Numerical Apertures
BARC on a Transparent Substrate
BARC Performance
Top Antireflection Coatings
Contrast Enhancement Layer
Impact of the Phase of the Substrate Reflectance
Imaging in Resist
Image in Resist Contrast
Calculating the Image in Resist
Resist-Induced Spherical Aberrations
Standing Wave Amplitude Ratio
Defining Intensity
Intensity at Oblique Incidence
Refraction into an Absorbing Material
Intensity and Absorbed Energy
Problems
Conventional Resists: Exposure and Bake Chemistry
Exposure
Absorption
Exposure Kinetics
Post-Apply Bake
Sensitizer Decomposition
Solvent Diffusion and Evaporation
Solvent Effects in Lithography
Post-exposure Bake Diffusion
Detailed Bake Temperature Behavior
Measuring the ABC Parameters
Problems
Chemically Amplified Resists: Exposure and Bake Chemistry
Exposure Reaction
Chemical Amplification
Amplification Reaction
Diffusion
Acid Loss
Base Quencher
Reaction-Diffusion Systems
Measuring Chemically Amplified Resist Parameters
Stochastic Modeling of Resist Chemistry
Photon Shot Noise
Chemical Concentration
Some Mathematics of Binary Random Variables
Photon Absorption and Exposure
Acid Diffusion, Conventional Resist
Acid-Catalyzed Reaction-Diffusion
Reaction-Diffusion and Polymer Deblocking
Acid-Base Quenching
Problems
Photoresist Development
Kinetics of Development
A Simple Kinetic Development Model
Other Development Models
Molecular Weight Distributions and the Critical Ionization Model
Surface Inhibition
Extension to Negative Resists
Developer Temperature
Developer Normality
The Development Contrast
Defining Photoresist Contrast
Comparing Definitions of Contrast
The Practical Contrast
Relationship between [gamma] and r[subscript max]/r[subscript min]
The Development Path
The Euler-Lagrange Equation
The Case of No z-Dependence
The Case of a Separable Development Rate Function
Resist Sidewall Angle
The Case of Constant Development Gradients
Segmented Development and the Lumped Parameter Model (LPM)
LPM Example - Gaussian Image
Measuring Development Rates
Problems
Lithographic Control in Semiconductor Manufacturing
Defining Lithographic Quality
Critical Dimension Control
Impact of CD Control
Improving CD Control
Sources of Focus and Dose Errors
Defining Critical Dimension
How to Characterize Critical Dimension Variations
Spatial Variations
Temporal Variations and Random Variations
Characterizing and Separating Sources of CD Variations
Overlay Control
Measuring and Expressing Overlay
Analysis and Modeling of Overlay Data
Improving Overlay Data Analysis
Using Overlay Data
Overlay Versus Pattern Placement Error
The Process Window
The Focus-Exposure Matrix
Defining the Process Window and DOF
The Isofocal Point
Overlapping Process Windows
Dose and Focus Control
H-V Bias
Astigmatism and H-V Bias
Source Shape Asymmetry
Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF)
Linearity
Defining MEEF
Aerial Image MEEF
Contact Hole MEEF
Mask Errors as Effective Dose Errors
Resist Impact on MEEF
Line-End Shortening
Measuring LES
Characterizing LES Process Effects
Critical Shape and Edge Placement Errors
Pattern Collapse
Problems
Gradient-Based Lithographic Optimization: Using the Normalized Image Log-Slope
Lithography as Information Transfer
Aerial Image
Image in Resist
Exposure
Post-exposure Bake
Diffusion in Conventional Resists
Chemically Amplified Resists - Reaction Only
Chemically Amplified Resists - Reaction-Diffusion
Chemically Amplified Resists - Reaction-Diffusion with Quencher
Develop
Conventional Resist
Chemically Amplified Resist
Resist Profile Formation
The Case of a Separable Development Rate Function
Lumped Parameter Model
Line Edge Roughness
Summary
Problems
Resolution Enhancement Technologies
Resolution
Defining Resolution
Pitch Resolution
Natural Resolutions
Improving Resolution
Optical Proximity Correction (OPC)
Proximity Effects
Proximity Correction - Rule Based
Proximity Correction - Model Based
Subresolution Assist Features (SRAFs)
Off-Axis Illumination (OAI)
Phase-Shifting Masks (PSM)
Alternating PSM
Phase Conflicts
Phase and Intensity Imbalance
Attenuated PSM
Impact of Phase Errors
Natural Resolutions
Contact Holes and the Point Spread Function
The Coherent Line Spread Function (LSF)
The Isolated Phase Edge
Problems
Glossary of Microlithographic Terms
Curl, Divergence, Gradient, Laplacian
The Dirac Delta Function
Index