Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks

ISBN-10: 0470095105

ISBN-13: 9780470095102

Edition: 2005

Authors: Holger Karl, Andreas Willig

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Wireless sensor networks will revolutionise applications such as environmental monitoring, home automation, and logistics. Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks provides a thorough description of the most important issues and questions that have to be addressed in a wireless sensor network. Wireless sensor networks combine current research trends from a number of different disciplines - hardware design, information & signal processing, and communication networks to name but a few. This single resource makes the crucial aspects of these research fields accessible to the reader. The authors give an overview of the current state-of-the-art and put all the individual solutions into perspective with each other. Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks: Covers architectures and communications protocols in detail, illustrating solutions with practical implementation examples and case studies. Provides an understanding of mutual relationships and dependencies between different protocols and architectural decisions. Offers an in-depth investigation of relevant protocol mechanisms. Shows which protocols are suitable for which tasks within a wireless sensor network and in which circumstances they perform efficiently. This singular text provides academic researchers, graduate students in computer science, computer engineering, and electrical engineering, as well as practitioners in industry and research engineers, with an understanding of the specific design challenges and solutions for wireless sensor networks. "I am deeply impressed by the book of Karl & Willig. It is by far the most complete source for wireless sensor networks...The book covers almost all topics related to sensor networks, gives an amazing number of references, and, thus, is the perfect source for students, teachers, and researchers. Throughout the book the reader will find high quality text, figures, formulas, comparisons etc. - all you need for a sound basis to start sensor network research." Prof. Jochen Schiller, Institute of Computer Science, Freie Universitt Berlin
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Book details

List price: $150.00
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 5/27/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 526
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.96" long x 1.32" tall
Weight: 2.530
Language: English

List of abbreviations
A guide to the book
The vision of Ambient Intelligence
Application examples
Types of applications
Challenges for WSNs
Characteristic requirements
Required mechanisms
Why are sensor networks different?
Mobile ad hoc networks and wireless sensor networks
Fieldbuses and wireless sensor networks
Enabling technologies for wireless sensor networks
Single-node architecture
Hardware components
Sensor node hardware overview
Communication device
Sensors and actuators
Power supply of sensor nodes
Energy consumption of sensor nodes
Operation states with different power consumption
Microcontroller energy consumption
Radio transceivers
Relationship between computation and communication
Power consumption of sensor and actuators
Operating systems and execution environments
Embedded operating systems
Programming paradigms and application programming interfaces
Structure of operating system and protocol stack
Dynamic energy and power management
Case Study: TinyOS and nesC
Other examples
Some examples of sensor nodes
The "Mica Mote" family
EYES nodes
Commercial solutions
Network architecture
Sensor network scenarios
Types of sources and sinks
Single-hop versus multihop networks
Multiple sinks and sources
Three types of mobility
Optimization goals and figures of merit
Quality of service
Energy efficiency
Design principles for WSNs
Distributed organization
In-network processing
Adaptive fidelity and accuracy
Data centricity
Exploit location information
Exploit activity patterns
Exploit heterogeneity
Component-based protocol stacks and cross-layer optimization
Service interfaces of WSNs
Structuring application/protocol stack interfaces
Expressibility requirements for WSN service interfaces
Gateway concepts
The need for gateways
WSN to Internet communication
Internet to WSN communication
WSN tunneling
Communication Protocols
Physical layer
Wireless channel and communication fundamentals
Frequency allocation
Modulation and demodulation
Wave propagation effects and noise
Channel models
Spread-spectrum communications
Packet transmission and synchronization
Quality of wireless channels and measures for improvement
Physical layer and transceiver design considerations in WSNs
Energy usage profile
Choice of modulation scheme
Dynamic modulation scaling
Antenna considerations
Further reading
MAC protocols
Fundamentals of (wireless) MAC protocols
Requirements and design constraints for wireless MAC protocols
Important classes of MAC protocols
MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks
Low duty cycle protocols and wakeup concepts
Sparse topology and energy management (STEM)
The mediation device protocol
Wakeup radio concepts
Further reading
Contention-based protocols
CSMA protocols
Further solutions
Schedule-based protocols
Traffic-adaptive medium access protocol (TRAMA)
Further solutions
The IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol
Network architecture and types/roles of nodes
Superframe structure
GTS management
Data transfer procedures
Slotted CSMA-CA protocol
Nonbeaconed mode
Further reading
How about IEEE 802.11 and bluetooth?
Further reading
Link-layer protocols
Fundamentals: tasks and requirements
Error control
Causes and characteristics of transmission errors
ARQ techniques
FEC techniques
Hybrid schemes
Power control
Further mechanisms to combat errors
Error control: summary
Adaptive schemes
Intermediate checksum schemes
Combining packet-size optimization and FEC
Treatment of frame headers
Framing: summary
Link management
Link-quality characteristics
Link-quality estimation
Naming and addressing
Use of addresses and names in (sensor) networks
Address management tasks
Uniqueness of addresses
Address allocation and assignment
Addressing overhead
Address and name management in wireless sensor networks
Assignment of MAC addresses
Distributed assignment of networkwide addresses
Distributed assignment of locally unique addresses
Address assignment algorithm
Address selection and representation
Further schemes
Content-based and geographic addressing
Content-based addressing
Geographic addressing
Time synchronization
Introduction to the time synchronization problem
The need for time synchronization in wireless sensor networks
Node clocks and the problem of accuracy
Properties and structure of time synchronization algorithms
Time synchronization in wireless sensor networks
Protocols based on sender/receiver synchronization
Lightweight time synchronization protocol (LTS)
How to increase accuracy and estimate drift
Timing-sync protocol for sensor networks (TPSN)
Protocols based on receiver/receiver synchronization
Reference broadcast synchronization (RBS)
Hierarchy referencing time synchronization (HRTS)
Further reading
Localization and positioning
Properties of localization and positioning procedures
Possible approaches
Trilateration and triangulation
Scene analysis
Mathematical basics for the lateration problem
Solution with three anchors and correct distance values
Solving with distance errors
Single-hop localization
Active Badge
Active office
Overlapping connectivity
Approximate point in triangle
Using angle of arrival information
Positioning in multihop environments
Connectivity in a multihop network
Multihop range estimation
Iterative and collaborative multilateration
Probabilistic positioning description and propagation
Impact of anchor placement
Further reading
Topology control
Motivation and basic ideas
Options for topology control
Aspects of topology-control algorithms
Controlling topology in flat networks - Power control
Some complexity results
Are there magic numbers? - bounds on critical parameters
Some example constructions and protocols
Further reading on flat topology control
Hierarchical networks by dominating sets
Motivation and definition
A hardness result
Some ideas from centralized algorithms
Some distributed approximations
Further reading
Hierarchical networks by clustering
Definition of clusters
A basic idea to construct independent sets
A generalization and some performance insights
Connecting clusters
Rotating clusterheads
Some more algorithm examples
Multihop clusters
Multiple layers of clustering
Passive clustering
Further reading
Combining hierarchical topologies and power control
Pilot-based power control
Ad hoc Network Design Algorithm (ANDA)
Adaptive node activity
Geographic Adaptive Fidelity (GAF)
Adaptive Self-Configuring sEnsor Networks' Topologies (ASCENT)
Turning off nodes on the basis of sensing coverage
Routing protocols
The many faces of forwarding and routing
Gossiping and agent-based unicast forwarding
Basic idea
Randomized forwarding
Random walks
Further reading
Energy-efficient unicast
Some example unicast protocols
Further reading
Multipath unicast routing
Further reading
Broadcast and multicast
Source-based tree protocols
Shared, core-based tree protocols
Mesh-based protocols
Further reading on broadcast and multicast
Geographic routing
Basics of position-based routing
Further reading on geographic routing
Mobile nodes
Mobile sinks
Mobile data collectors
Mobile regions
Data-centric and content-based networking
The publish/subscribe interaction paradigm
Addressing data
Implementation options
Distribution versus gathering of data - In-network processing
Data-centric routing
One-shot interactions
Repeated interactions
Further reading
Data aggregation
A database interface to describe aggregation operations
Categories of aggregation operations
Placement of aggregation points
When to stop waiting for more data
Aggregation as an optimization problem
Broadcasting an aggregated value
Information-directed routing and aggregation
Some further examples
Further reading on data aggregation
Data-centric storage
Transport layer and quality of service
The transport layer and QoS in wireless sensor networks
Quality of service/reliability
Transport protocols
Coverage and deployment
Sensing models
Coverage measures
Uniform random deployments: Poisson point processes
Coverage of random deployments: Boolean sensing model
Coverage of random deployments: general sensing model
Coverage determination
Coverage of grid deployments
Further reading
Reliable data transport
Reliability requirements in sensor networks
Single packet delivery
Using a single path
Using multiple paths
Multiple receivers
Block delivery
PSFQ: block delivery in the sink-to-sensors case
RMST: block delivery in the sensors-to-sink case
What about TCP?
Further reading
Congestion control and rate control
Congestion situations in sensor networks
Mechanisms for congestion detection and handling
Protocols with rate control
The CODA congestion-control framework
Further reading
Advanced application support
Advanced in-network processing
Going beyond mere aggregation of data
Distributed signal processing
Distributed source coding
Network coding
Further issues
Security considerations in wireless sensor networks
Denial-of-service attacks
Further reading
Application-specific support
Target detection and tracking
Contour/edge detection
Field sampling
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