Anxiety Disorders and Phobias A Cognitive Perspective

ISBN-10: 046500587X

ISBN-13: 9780465005871

Edition: 15th 1985 (Anniversary)

Authors: Gary Emery, Ruth Greenberg, Aaron T. Beck

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The 15th anniversary edition of this foundation work on cognitive therapy features a new introduction by Aaron Beck, in which he offers an up-to-date appraisal of the current state of cognitive therapy and its application to the treatment of phobias and anxiety.
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Book details

List price: $25.00
Edition: 15th
Copyright year: 1985
Publisher: Basic Books
Publication date: 6/29/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 384
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.034
Language: English

Aaron T. Beck, MD, is University Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania and President of the Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy. Dr. Beck developed cognitive therapy in the early 1960s as a psychiatrist at the University of Pennsylvania. He has published over 500 articles and numerous books and has lectured throughout the world. Dr. Beck is the recipient of many honors from professional and scientific organizations, including "America's Nobel," the Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award.

Ruth L. Greenberg is a psychologist in private practice and trains psychotherapists at the Center for Cognitive Therapy.

A native of Rhode Island, Aaron Beck had an early interest in psychology. After graduating from Brown University, he embarked on a career in medicine at Yale University with the intention of specializing in psychiatry. Dissatisfied with classical psychoanalysis, he turned to modified psychoanalytic approaches and was particularly influenced by ego psychology advanced by Rapaport. Ego psychology directed his interest in cognition, and over time Beck abandoned the psychoanalytic framework and formulated his own cognitive theory-behavior therapy for patients with depression and other psychiatric disorders. He developed numerous measurement scales, including the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Self-Concept Test, which are widely used as diagnostic and research tools in the field. Beck continues to teach, consult, and write about the use of cognitive therapy in treating emotional disorders and other problems.

Preface to the 2005 Edition
Preface to the 1985 Edition
Theoretical and Clinical Aspects
Turning Anxiety on Its Head: An Overview
The Paradox of Anxiety
Changing Concepts of Anxiety
Distinguishing Anxiety, Fear, Phobias, and Panic
Anxiety and Fear
Phoblas and Panic Attacks
"Realistic" and "Unrealistic" Fears
Hoch's Paradox
Future Danger and Present Danger
The Function of Anxiety
Adaptational Aspects
Anxiety as a Strategy in Response to Threat
Survival Mechanisms
Defensive Patterns
Symptoms and Their Significance
Symptoms and Symptoms
Symptoms and Functions
Major Reactions: Mobilization, Inhibition, Demobilization
Free-Floating Anxiety-Fact or Artifact?
Normal Versus Pathological Anxiety
Thinking Disorder in Clinical Anxiety
Attention, Concentration, and Vigilance
"Alarm System" and "Automatic Thoughts"
Loss of Objectivity and of Voluntary Control
Stimulus Generalization
Selective Abstraction and Loss of Perspective
Dichotomous Thinking
Lack of Habituation
Classification of Anxiety Disorders
Panic Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Atypical Anxiety Disorder
Phobic Disorders
Social Phobia
Simple Phobia
The Cognitive Model of Threat Reactions
The Role of Context
Primary Appraisal
Secondary Appraisal
Estimate of Danger
Hostile Response
The Nature of Cognitive Processing
The Relation of Behavioral Activation and Inhibition to Motivation
Distinguishing Between Behavior and Emotions
The Vicious Cycle
Primal Responses to Threat
The Anergic and the Energic Systems
Changes in Cognitive Content and Physiological Reactions
The Relation of Anxiety to Other Defensive Responses
Cognitive Structures and Anxiogenic Rules
Cognitive Schemas
The Function of Cognitive Set
The Continuous Cycle
The Modes
Syndromes and Modes
Assumptions, Rules, and Formulas
Rules in Problematic Situations
Rules in Anxiety Disorders
Vulnerability: The Core of Anxiety Disorders
The Concept of Vulnerability
The Role of Skill Deficits
The Role of Context and Experience
Interference With Effective Performance
Catastrophic Predictions and Vicious Cycles
The "Function" of Dysfunctional Behaviors
Physical Danger
Psychosocial Danger
The Domains of Vulnerability
Sectors of the Domain
Threats to the Domain
Threats to Sociality
Threats to Individuality
Specific Fears
Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Panic Disorder
General View of the Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
Biological Studies
Precipitating Psychological Factors
Interaction of Precipitating Factors with Previous Problems
Do Cognitions Cause Anxiety Disorders?
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Types of Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Specific Fears
Self-Concept in Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Self-Criticism in Anxiety and Depression
The Differences Between Anxiety and Depression
Panic Disorder
Meaning of Panic Attacks
Functional Analysis of Panic Attacks
Precipitation of Panic Attacks
Simple Phobias
Definition of Phobia
Differentiating Phobias From Fears
The Refractoriness of Phobias
Content of Fears and Phobias
Traumatic Phobias
Fixation Phobias
Specific Phobias
The Meanings of Phobias
Multiple PhobIas: Conceptual Continuity
Relation of Fears to Phobias
Self-Confidence Versus Vulnerability
Dual Belief Systems
Visual Images
Identification with "Victim"
Evolution, Rules, and Phobias
The Agoraphobic Syndrome
The Riddle of Agoraphobia
The Development of Agoraphobia
Predisposition and Precipitation
Onset of Symptomatology
Attribution of Causality in Panic Attacks
Cognitive Set: Vulnerability
A Synthesis
The Evaluation Anxieties
The Essence of Evaluation Anxieties
Before the Fall
Common Features of Evaluative Threats
Status and Ranking Order
Rules and Formulas
Automatic Protective Reactions
Social Phobias and Social Activities
Paradoxes of Social Anxiety
The Fear of Being Evaluated
The Primal "Defenses"
Differentiating Social Phobia from Agoraphobia
Situations That Provoke the Phobic Symptoms
Somatic Symptoms
The Phenomena of Social Anxiety
Shame and "Social Image"
Fear of Loss of Love or Abandonment
Public-Speaking Anxiety
Test Anxiety
A Synthesis
Cognitive Therapy: Techniques and Applications
Principles of Cognitive Therapy
Cognitive Therapy Is Based on the Cognitive Model of Emotional Disorders
Didactic Presentation
Introducing Cognitive Therapy
Levels of Fear
Cognitive Therapy Is Brief and Time-Limited
A Sound Therapeutic Relationship Is a Necessary Condition for Effective Cognitive Therapy
Therapy Is a Collaborative Effort Between Therapist and Patient
Cognitive Therapy Uses Primarily the Socratic Method
Cognitive Therapy Is Structured and Directive
Cognitive Therapy Is Problem-Oriented
General Strategies
Cognitive Therapy Is Based on an Educational Model
Learning to Learn
The Theory and Techniques of Cognitive Therapy Rely on the Inductive Method
Homework Is a Central Feature of Cognitive Therapy
Strategies and Techniques for Cognitive Restructuring
Developing Self-Awareness
Directing Patients
Strategies and Techniques
Counting Automatic Thoughts
Three Basic Approaches
What's the Evidence?
What's Another Way of Looking At It?
So What if it Happens?
Modifying Imagery
Induced Images
Delineating Maladaptive Patterns
Pinpointing Cognitive Distortions
Modification of Induced Images
Techniques for Modifying Images
Turn-Off Technique
Time Projection
Symbolic Images
Decatastrophizing the Image
Images and Thoughts
Facilitating Change in Induced Images
Substituting Positive Imagery
Substituting Contrasting Imagery
Coping Models
Imagery to Reduce Threat
Escaping a Worse Alternative
Mixed Strategy
Future Therapy
Goal Rehearsal
Modifying the Affective Component
Accepting the Feelings
Reducing Anxiety About Anxiety
Reducing Shame About Showing Anxiety
Normalizing Anxiety
Active Acceptance
Identifying Emotions
Action Strategies
Activity Schedules
Increasing Tolerance for Anxiety
Alcohol, Stimulants, Diet, Stress
Maladaptive Coping Behavior
Positive Self-Instruction
Graphs and Diaries
Concentration (or Distraction) Exercises
Relaxation Methods
Emotional Review
Imagery Methods
Repeated Review Outside the Office
Owning One's Emotions
Sequential Reasoning
Correlational Reasoning
Analogical Reasoning
Emotional Reasoning
The Payoff
Modifying the Behavioral Component
Identifying Protective Mechanisms
Explaining the Therapeutic Approach to the Patient
Blocks to Learning
Educational Devices
Futility of Self-Protection
Graded Steps or a Gradual Approximation
Aids to Exposure
Initiation Technique
Behavioral Rehearsal
The Use of Significant Others
Technical Aids
Cognitive Avoidance
The Critical-Decision Technique
Task Orientation
Behavioral Thought
The "As If" Technique
Shame and Other Feared Experiences
Developing Self-Confidence
Doing the Unexpected
Making a Mistake Part of the Show
Restructuring a Patient's Assumptions and Major Issues
Identifying Assumptions
Major Issues
Identifying Major Issues
Positive and Negative Reinforcers
Psychological Double
Development of Major Concerns
Motivation and Major Concerns
Appendix I
Appendix II
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