Person-Centred Therapy 100 Key Points

ISBN-10: 0415452376

ISBN-13: 9780415452373

Edition: 2010

Authors: Wilkins

List price: $15.99
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Book details

List price: $15.99
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Group
Publication date: 9/11/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 336
Size: 5.00" wide x 7.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 0.792
Language: English

The Underlying Epistemology, Philosophy And Principles Of Person-Centred Therapy
The person-centred approach is a system of ideas and attitudes in which person-centred therapy is rooted
Person-centred therapy has been from the outset and remains a radical challenge to the prevailing medical model and the notion of therapist as 'expert'
The person-centred approach embraces a family of person-centred therapies
There is a philosophical basis to person-centred therapy
The principle of non-directivity underpins person-centred therapy
'Power' and how it is exercised are central to person-centred therapy
The issue of the compatibility of using techniques in a person-centred framework is unresolved and contentious
Classical Person-Centred Theory
Person-centred practice, however it is now carried out, is founded on theory based on empirical research and observation as described by Rogers and his colleagues in the 1940s and 1950s
The actualising tendency is the crucial concept at the heart of approaches to person-centred therapy
The 'nineteen propositions' detailed in Rogers (1951) and the classic paper Rogers (1959) provide an elegant statement of a theory of personality consistent with person-centred concepts of change
Although person-centred theory is an organismic theory, not a self theory, the notion of 'self' remains important
The root of psychological and emotional distress lies in the acquisition of conditions of worth
The proposal of six necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic change is an integrative statement describing the elements of any successful therapeutic relationship. It is untrue that the practice of person-centred therapy involves but three 'core conditions'
Because there is no stated or implied ranking of the six necessary and sufficient conditions and they are only effective in combination, it may be a mistake to favour one above the other
The need for (psychological) contact is an often unconsidered pre-requisite for person-centred therapy. To be in contact is to be in relationship
That the client is incongruent and at least to some degree aware of that incongruence (as vulnerability or anxiety) is a necessary condition for therapy
Rogers' seven stages of process provides a model for therapeutic change and guidance for the therapist in the encounter
For therapy to be effective, the therapist must be congruent in the relationship. This is a requirement to 'be' and not necessarily to 'do'
Unconditional positive regard is the linchpin on which person-centred therapy turns but it presents a real challenge to the therapist. However, without this quality of acceptance there is a strong possibility that therapy will be unsuccessful
'The ideal person-centred therapist is first of all empathic.' 'Being empathic is a complex, demanding, strong yet subtle and gentle way of being'
The effectiveness of a therapist's unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding depends on the extent to which they are perceived by the client
In person-centred theory, there is no acceptance of the unconscious as a repository of repressed functions and primitive drives or desires and therefore 'transference' is of little or no relevance
Revisions, Reconsiderations And Advances In Person-Centred Theory
Person-centred therapy is not based on an ossified, mid-twentieth century theory but alive, dynamic and being actively researched and developed
From the outset, an understanding of child development and psychotherapy with children and young people has been fundamental to the person-centred approach. Theory and practice continue to be developed and refined
In the view of some, there are times when the integration of the necessary and sufficient conditions leads to another, 'transformational' quality known as 'presence'
For some, in classic person-centred theory the notion of the 'individual/self' as a discrete entity is over-emphasised, incomplete and/or culture bound
The person may constitute a multiplicity of 'selves' rather than a unitary self
Empathy is seen as multi-faceted and complex but it is important to remember that empathic understanding is what is essential to effective therapy
Although the basic hypothesis does not call for it, the communication to and/or perception of the therapist's congruence by the client has recently received attention
Although it remains under-researched, unconditional positive regard has been reconsidered and re-evaluated
Person-centred therapy is rooted in a philosophical and ethical tradition: the work of Peter Schmid
Although diagnosis has no place in person-centred practice, assessment may be an ethical obligation
Person-centred theory includes ways of understanding of psychopathology. These differ from the predominant 'medical model'
Pre-therapy and contact work constitute an important, person-centred way of working with 'contact impairment' and extreme mental and emotional distress
Client incongruence, which can be understood as caused in various ways, is a source of mental and emotional distress
The client's style of processing may result in mental and emotional distress
The causes of mental and emotional distress are environmental, social and to do with power and powerlessness. The medicalisation of distress is an error
For some, an extension to person-centred working is embraced in the concept of 'relational depth'
Criticisms Of Person-Centred Therapy - And Rebuttals
The theory and practice of person-centred therapy has been subject to a great deal of criticism. This criticism is often based in misunderstanding
It is untrue that person-centred theory holds that there is an ideal endpoint to human development and this has implications for therapy
It is untrue that the model of the person advanced in person-centred theory is inadequate to explain psychopathology and leads to an unprofessional disregard for assessment
It is untrue that person-centred theory includes an unduly optimistic view of human nature as fundamentally 'good' and that this leads to a na�ve disregard for destructive drives and an avoidance of challenge and confrontation in the therapeutic endeavour
Rogers' (1957/1959) statement of the necessary and sufficient conditions has been challenged. While many accept the necessity of these, the sufficiency is doubted
Person-centred therapy is seen as arising from and bound to a particular culture milieu and this limits its relevance and applicability
In ignoring 'transference' person-centred therapy is seen as na�ve and seriously lacking
The non-directive attitude is a fiction and an irresponsible denial of power
The concern for power in the therapeutic relationship shown by person-centred therapists is misconceived and misdirected
Person-centred therapy is a palliative for the worried well but lacks the depth and rigour to deal with people who are 'ill'
Person-centred practice comprises solely 'reflection' and this is a technique of little effect
Because of its obsession with 'non-directivity' the practice of person-centred therapy results in harmfully sloppy boundaries
Person-Centred Practice
The foundations of person-centred practice
Responsible person-centred practice requires a strong theoretical foundation and particular attitudes and personal qualities
Person-centred practice takes place in many contexts and the terms 'counselling' and 'psychotherapy' apply to some of these but are often interchangeable
The first step towards person-centred practice is a thorough grounding in person-centred theory
Person-centred practitioners work with clients, not patients
An objective of person-centred practice is to offer a healing relationship. This comprises several ingredients including the six necessary and sufficient conditions
Because person-centred therapy relies on how the therapist is rather than what the therapist knows, there is professional obligation on person-centred therapists to attend to their own growth and development
The initial processes of person-centred therapy
In person-centred therapy, getting started with a new client is an involved and involving process
Contracting and structure in person-centred therapy
Assessment in person-centred practice
Establishing trust
The basic attitudes underpinning person-centred practice
Non-directivity in practice
Clients are the experts on themselves and are active agents in their own growth and healing
The person-centred therapist's job is to follow wherever the client leads, putting aside theoretical understanding and any other 'expert' knowledge
The necessary and sufficient conditions in practice
The necessary and sufficient conditions are all it takes for successful therapy
Contact in practice
The therapist's availability for contact
The client's availability for contact
Contacting the 'unavailable' client - contact impairment and pre-therapy or contact work
Dealing with client incongruence
Being congruent or integrated in the relationship as a therapist
Developing and enhancing therapist congruence
Making congruent responses
Being yourself, psychologically mature and practising according to your personal style: the multifaceted nature of therapist congruence
The therapist's self-expression and self-disclosure in person-centred therapy
Developing your unconditional positive self-regard
Developing unconditional positive regard
Unconditional positive regard in practice: paying attention to the whole client
Unconditional positive regard in practice: the avoidance of positive reinforcement and partiality
Unconditional positive regard in practice: the avoidance of rescuing the 'helpless'
Accepting the whole of the client: unconditional positive regard and configurations of self
Developing your empathy
Communicating your empathic understanding
Facilitating the client's perception of therapist unconditional positive regard and empathy
The therapist-provided conditions as a whole: preparing for and facilitating 'presence' and/or 'relational depth'
Person-Centred Theory And Practice When Working With Reactions To Life Events
Person-centred therapy and the 'one size fits all' approach
Person-centred theory and loss and bereavement
Person-centred practice with clients experiencing loss or bereavement
Person-centred theory and client reactions to being abused as children
Person-centred practice is effective with clients abused as children
Post-traumatic stress and responses to critical incidents may be understood in terms of person-centred theory
It is possible to offer person-centred therapy to people who have experienced a critical incident or other traumatic event
In person-centred theory, 'depressed process' is preferred to the concept of depression
A person-centred way of working with depressed process
Panic and anxiety can be understood in person-centred terms
Anxiety and panic can be worked with in a person-centred way
There are person-centred understandings of the experiencing of different realities
There are person-centred ways of working with people who experience reality differently
There is a person-centred understanding of the excessive use of drugs and/or alcohol
Person-centred work with people for whom their use of mood-altering substances is problematic
'The facts are friendly': research evidence indicates that person-centred therapy is effective and at least as effective as other modalities
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