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Preface to the Fourth Edition | |

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An Approach to Astrophysics | |

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Channels for Astronomical Information | |

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X-Ray Astronomy: Development of a New Field | |

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The Appropriate Set of Physical Laws | |

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The Formation of Stars | |

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The Hertzsprung-Russell and Color-Magnitude Diagrams | |

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The Birth of Low-Mass Stars | |

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Massive Stars | |

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The Late Stages of Stellar Evolution | |

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Abundance of the Chemical Elements in Stars and the Solar System | |

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Origin of the Solar System | |

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The Galaxy and the Local Group | |

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The Formation of Large-Scale Structures | |

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Black Holes | |

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Magnetohydrodynamics and Turbulence | |

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Problems of Life | |

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Unobserved Astronomical Objects | |

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The Cosmic Distance Scale | |

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Size of the Solar System | |

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Trigonometric Parallax | |

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Spectroscopic Parallax | |

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Superposition of Main Sequences | |

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RR Lyrae Variables | |

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Cepheid Variables | |

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Novae and HII Regions | |

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Supernovae | |

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The Tully-Fisher and Faber-Jackson Relations | |

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Distance-Red-Shift Relation | |

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Distances and Velocities | |

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Seeliger's Theorem and Number Counts in Cosmology | |

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Problems Dealing with the Size of Astronomical Objects | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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Dynamics and Masses of Astronomical Bodies | |

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Universal Gravitational Attraction | |

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Ellipses and Conic Sections | |

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Central Force | |

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Two-Body Problem with Attractive Force | |

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Kepler's Laws | |

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Determination of the Gravitational Constant | |

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The Concept of Mass | |

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Inertial Frames of Reference - The Equivalence Principle | |

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Gravitational Red Shift and Time Dilation | |

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Measures of Time | |

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Uses of Pulsar Time | |

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Galactic Rotation | |

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Scattering in an Inverse Square Law Field | |

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Stellar Drag | |

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Virial Theorem | |

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Stability Against Tidal Disruption | |

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Lagrangian Equations | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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Random Processes | |

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Random Events | |

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Random Walk | |

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Distribution Functions, Probabilities, and Mean Values | |

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Projected Length of Randomly Oriented Rods | |

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The Motion of Molecules | |

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Ideal Gas Law | |

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Radiation Kinetics | |

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Isothermal Distributions | |

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Atmospheric Density | |

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Particle Energy Distribution in an Atmosphere | |

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Phase Space | |

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Angular Diameters of Stars | |

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The Spectrum of Light Inside and Outside a Hot Body | |

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Boltzmann Equation and Liouville's Theorem | |

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Fermi-Dirac Statistics | |

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The Saha Equation | |

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Mean Values | |

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Fluctuations | |

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The First Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes | |

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Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | |

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Formation of Condensations and the Stability of the Interstellar Medium | |

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Ionized Gases and Clusters of Stars and Galaxies | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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Photons and Fast Particles | |

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The Relativity Principle | |

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Relativistic Terminology | |

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Relative Motion | |

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Four-Vectors | |

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Aberration of Light | |

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Momentum, Mass, and Energy | |

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The Doppler Effect | |

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Poynting-Robertson Drag on a Grain | |

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Motion Through the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation | |

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Particles at High Energies | |

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High-Energy Collisions | |

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Superluminal Motions and Tachyons | |

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Strong Gravitational Fields | |

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Gravitational Time Delay; Deflection of Light | |

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Gravitational Lenses | |

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An Independent Measure of the Hubble Constant | |

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Orbital Motion Around a Black Hole | |

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Advance of the Perihelion of Mercury | |

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Accretion Disks Around X-ray Binaries | |

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The Smallest Conceivable Volume | |

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The Zeroth Law of Black Hole Dynamics | |

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Entropy and Temperature of a Black Hole | |

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The Third Law of Black Hole Thermodynamics | |

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Radiating Black Holes | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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Electromagnetic Processes in Space | |

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Coulomb's Law and Dielectric Displacement | |

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Cosmic Magnetic Fields | |

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Ohm's Law and Dissipation | |

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Magnetic Acceleration of Particles | |

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Ampere's Law and the Relation Between Cosmic Currents and Magnetic Fields | |

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Magnetic Mirrors, Magnetic Bottles, and Cosmic-Ray Particles | |

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Maxwell's Equations | |

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The Wave Equation | |

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Phase and Group Velocity | |

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Energy Density, Pressure, and the Poynting Vector | |

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Propagation of Waves Through a Tenuous Ionized Medium | |

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Faraday Rotation | |

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Light Emission by Slowly Moving Charges | |

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Gravitational Radiation | |

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Light Scattering by Unbound Charges | |

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Scattering by Bound Charges | |

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Extinction by Interstellar Grains | |

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Absorption and Emission of Radiation by a Plasma | |

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Radiation from Thermal Radio Sources | |

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Synchrotron Radiation | |

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The Synchrotron Radiation Spectrum | |

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The Compton Effect and Inverse Compton Effect | |

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The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect | |

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The Cherenkov Effect | |

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The Angular Distribution of Light from the Sky | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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Quantum Processes in Astrophysics | |

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Absorption and Emission of Radiation by Atomic Systems | |

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Quantization of Atomic Systems | |

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Atomic Hydrogen and Hydrogenlike Spectra | |

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Spectra of Ionized Hydrogen | |

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Hydrogen Molecules | |

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Selection Rules | |

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The Information Contained in Spectral Lines | |

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Absorption and Emission Line Profile | |

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Quantum Mechanical Transition Probabilities | |

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Blackbody Radiation | |

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Stimulated Emission and Cosmic Masers | |

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Stellar Opacity | |

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Chemical Composition of Stellar Atmospheres - The Radiative Transfer Problem | |

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A Gravitational Quantum Effect | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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Stars | |

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Observations | |

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Sources of Stellar Energy | |

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Requirements Imposed on Stellar Models | |

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Mathematical Formulation of the Theory | |

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Relaxation Times | |

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Equation of State | |

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Luminosity | |

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Opacity Inside a Star | |

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Convective Transfer | |

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Nuclear Reaction Rates | |

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Particles and Basic Particle Interactions | |

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Energy-Generating Processes in Stars | |

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Compact Stars | |

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White Dwarf Stars | |

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Stellar Evolution and The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram | |

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Supernovae, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes | |

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Pulsars, Magnetars, and Plerions | |

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Hypernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts | |

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Microquasars | |

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Vibration and Rotation of Stars | |

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Solar Neutrino Observations | |

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Additional Problems | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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Cosmic Gas and Dust | |

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Observations | |

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Stromgren Spheres | |

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Pressure Propagation and the Speed of Sound | |

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Shock Fronts and Ionization Fronts | |

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Gamma-Ray Bursts, GRB | |

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Origin of Cosmic Magnetic Fields | |

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Dynamo Amplification of Magnetic Fields | |

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Cosmic-Ray Particles in the Interstellar Medium | |

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Formation of Molecules and Grains | |

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Formation of Molecular Hydrogen, H[subscript 2] | |

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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons | |

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Infrared Emission from Galactic Sources | |

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Orientation of Interstellar Grains | |

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Acoustic Damping and The Barnett Effect | |

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Stability of Isothermal Gas Spheres | |

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Polytropes | |

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The Nature of Dark Matter | |

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Additional Problems | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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Formation of Stars and Planetary Systems | |

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Star Formation | |

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Gravitational Condensation of Matter | |

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Jeans Criterion | |

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Hydrostatics of Gaseous Clouds | |

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Magnetic Reconnection | |

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Ambipolar Diffusion | |

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Triggered Collapse | |

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Energy Dissipation | |

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Cooling of Dense Clouds by Grain Radiation | |

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Condensation in the Early Solar Nebula | |

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The Evidence Provided by Meteorites | |

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Nascent Planetary Disks | |

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Formation of Primitive Condensates in the Early Solar Nebula | |

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Formation of Planetesimals | |

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Condensation in the Primeval Solar Nebula | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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The Universe We Inhabit | |

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Questions About the Universe | |

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Isotropy and Homogeneity of the Universe | |

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Cosmological Principle | |

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Homogeneous Isotropic Models of the Universe | |

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Olbers's Paradox | |

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Measuring the Geometric Properties of the Universe | |

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Angular Diameters and Number Counts | |

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The Flux from Distant Supernovae | |

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Magnitudes and Angular Diameters of Galaxies | |

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Dynamics on a Cosmic Scale | |

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Einstein's Field Equations | |

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The Density Parameter[Omega] | |

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Some Simple Models of the Universe | |

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Self-Regenerating Universes | |

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Horizon of a Universe | |

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Topology of the Universe | |

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Do the Fundamental Constants of Nature Change with Time? | |

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The Flow of Time | |

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Branes and Compact Dimensions | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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An Astrophysical History of the Universe | |

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The Isotropy Problem | |

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The Flatness Problem | |

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Where Did the Microwave Background Radiation Originate | |

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Looking Back in Time | |

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The Planck Era | |

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Inflationary Cosmological Models | |

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The Post-Inflationary Stage | |

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The Riemann Curvature Constant | |

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Quark-Gluon Plasma | |

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The Origin of Baryonic Mass | |

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Leptons and Antileptons | |

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The Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry | |

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Early Element Formation | |

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The Entropy of the Universe | |

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A More Precise Extrapolation Back in Time | |

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The First 400,000 Years | |

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Last Impact and Decoupling of Matter from Radiation | |

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Observational Evidence | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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The Formation of Cosmic Structures | |

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The Inhomogeneous Universe | |

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Primordial Seeds | |

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The Seeds of Structure | |

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Evolution of Inhomogeneities | |

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The Coupling of Radiation and Matter | |

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Cooling of Gas After Decoupling | |

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Photon Drag | |

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Oscillations Around the Decoupling Era | |

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The Jeans Criterion | |

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Condensation on Superhorizon Scales | |

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A Swiss-Cheese Model | |

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Birkhoff's Theorem and "Why Galaxies Don't Expand" | |

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Curvature Fluctuations | |

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Primordial Collapse and the Density Parameter[Omega subscript 0] | |

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Inhomogeneities in the Microwave Background Radiation | |

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The Microwave Background Temperature Fluctuations | |

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The Three-Dimensional Power Spectrum of Galaxies and Clusters | |

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The Observed Imprint of Oscillations | |

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Oscillations and Fundamental Cosmological Parameters | |

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The Rees-Sciama Effect | |

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Formation of the Largest Structures | |

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Press-Schechter Condensation | |

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The Internal Structure of Dark Matter haloes | |

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Protogalactic Cooling | |

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Formation of the First Stars | |

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Population III Stars | |

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Reionization | |

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The Gunn-Peterson Effect | |

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Quasar Stromgren Spheres | |

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Formation of Supermassive Black Holes | |

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Accretion Disks Around Supermassive Black Holes | |

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The Masses of Galaxy Bulges and Central Black Holes | |

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Growth Through Merging | |

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Chemical Evolution of Galaxies and the Intracluster Medium | |

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Formation of Our Own Galaxy | |

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Radioactive Dating | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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Life in the Universe | |

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Introduction | |

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Thermodynamics of Biological Systems | |

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Organic Molecules in Nature and in the Laboratory | |

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Origins of Life on Earth | |

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The Chemical Basis of Terrestrial Life | |

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Laboratory Syntheses | |

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Panspermia | |

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Higher Organisms and Intelligence | |

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Communication and Space Travel | |

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Answer to a Selected Problem | |

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Astronomical Terminology | |

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Astrophysical Constants | |

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Index | |