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Empirical Political Analysis Research Methods in Political Science

ISBN-10: 0321086147

ISBN-13: 9780321086143

Edition: 5th 2002

Authors: Jarol B. Manheim, Richard C. Rich, Lars Willnat

List price: $97.60
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Book details

List price: $97.60
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Longman Publishing
Publication date: 6/26/2001
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 464
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.628
Language: English

Craig Leonard Briansis Associate Professor of Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. nbsp; Lars Willnatis Professor of Journalism at Indiana University. nbsp; Jarol B. Manheimis Professor of Media and Public Affairs and of Political Science at the George Washington University. nbsp; Richard C. Richis Professor of Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Preface
Introduction
The Research Process
The Formulation of Theory
The Operationalization of Theory
The Selection of Appropriate Research Techniques
The Observation of Behavior
The Analysis of Data
Interpretation of the Results
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Preparing To Do Research
Theory Building: Concepts and Hypotheses in Political Research
The Nature of Social Science Theory
The Logic of Theory Building
Components of Social Science Theory
Relationships in Social Science Theory
Theory Testing and Elaboration
The Role of Hypotheses
Formulating Hypotheses
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Setting the Foundation: Techniques of Systematic Bibliographic Search
Using the Existing Literature
Developing a System
Conducting the Search
Political Science Journals
Bibliographic Sources
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercise
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
From Abstract to Concrete: Operationalization and Measurement
Operationalization: The Link Between Theory and Observation
Operational Definitions
Measurement
Levels of Measurement
Working Hypotheses
Measurement Error: The Enemy
Validity
Reliability
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Working From a Plan Considerations in Research Design
Research Purpose and Research Design
Coping with Alternative Rival Hypotheses Through Research Design
Experimental Research Designs
Assigning Cases to Groups
Field Experiments and Nonexperimental Designs
Quasi-Experimental Designs
Creating a Research Design
Factors That Threaten Validity
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Who, What, Where, When: The Problem of Sampling
Defining a Representative Sample
Procedures for Selecting a Representative Sample
Variations on Random Sampling
Determining Appropriate Sample Size
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Quantitative Methods
Survey Research
Stages of the Survey Process
Conceptualizing
Survey Design
Instrumentation
Planning and Sampling
Training and Briefing Personnel
Pretesting
Surveying
Monitoring
Verifying
Secondary Analysis of Survey Data
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Scaling Techniques
Scale Construction: Two Basic Concerns
Likert Scaling
Guttman Scaling
Thurstone Scaling
The Semantic Differential
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Content Analysis
Preparing to Use Content Analysis
Undertaking a Substantive Content Analysis
Undertaking a Structural Content Analysis
Special Problems in the Use of Content Analysis
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Sources and Applications of Aggregate Data
Types of Aggregate Data
Problems in the Use of Aggregate Data
Sources of Aggregate Data
Collecting Aggregate Data
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Crossing Borders: The Practice of Comparative Research
Finding Questions that "Travel"
Using Equivalent Measures
Choosing Cases to Study
Finding Independent Observations
Finding Data
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Analyzing Quantitative Data
Data Preparation and Data Processing
Coding: What Do All Those Numbers Mean?
The Codebook and the Coding Sheet
Data Entry and Data Processing
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Describing the Data: The Construction of Tables, Charts, and Diagrams
The Enumerative Table
The Line Diagram
The Pie Diagram and the Bar Chart
The Bilateral Bar Chart
The Contingency Table
Some Words of Caution
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Statistics I: Summarizing Distributions on One Variable
Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion
Measures for Nominal Variables
Measures for Ordinal Variables
Measures for Interval Variables
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Statistics II: Examining Relationships Between Two Variables
Measures of Association and Statistical Significance
Measures of Association and Significance for Nominal Variables
Measures of Association and Significance for Ordinal Variables
Measures of Association and Significance for Interval Variables
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Statistics III: Examining Relationships Among Several Variables
Tabular Analysis
Multiple Regression
Interpreting Multiple Regression Results
Path Analysis
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Mathematical Modeling
The Process of Modeling
Why Model?
Examples of Mathematical Models of Political Behavior
Other Types of Models
Problems with Modeling
Conclusion
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Qualitative Methods
Introduction to Qualitative Methods
Comparing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods
Irreconcilable Differences?
Suggestions for Further Reading
Elite and Specialized Interviewing
Elite Interviewing
Techniques of Elite Interviewing
Specialized Interviewing
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Direct Observation
Scientific Method and Direct Observation
Approaches to Direct Observation
Techniques of Unstructured Observation
Techniques of Structured Observation
Sampling Procedures in Direct Observation
Coping with Method Effects in Direct Observation
The Ethics of Direct Observation
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Focus Group Methodologies
Why Use Focus Groups?
Limitations of Focus Groups
When Are Focus Groups Useful?
Planning and Conducting Focus Groups
Analyzing Focus Group Results
Reporting Focus Group Results
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Terms Introduced in This Chapter
Conclusion
Writing (or Reading) the Research Report
The Plan
The Structure
The Style
The Title and Abstract
Conclusion
A Case in Point
Suggestions for Further Reading
Research Exercises
Term Introduced in This Chapter
Overview
Developing Hypotheses, Measures, and a Research Design
Data Collection and Analysis
A Checklist for Judging Research
Conclusion
Statistical Tables
Ethical Considerations in Empirical Research
Glossary
Index