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Preface | |

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Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics | |

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The Nature of Social Research | |

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Why Test Hypotheses? | |

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The Stages of Social Research | |

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Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research | |

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Functions of Statistics | |

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Summary | |

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Terms to Remember | |

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Problems | |

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Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey | |

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Description | |

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Organizing the Data | |

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Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data | |

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Comparing Distributions | |

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Proportions and Percentages | |

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Ratios and Rates | |

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Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data | |

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Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data | |

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Cumulative Distributions | |

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Percentile Ranks | |

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Dealing with Decimal Data | |

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Flexible Class Intervals | |

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Cross-Tabulations | |

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Graphic Presentations | |

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Summary | |

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Terms to Remember | |

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Problems | |

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Measures of Central Tendency | |

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The Mode | |

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The Median | |

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The Mean | |

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Taking One Step at a Time | |

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Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean | |

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Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Simple Frequency Distribution | |

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Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Grouped Frequency Distribution | |

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Summary | |

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Terms to Remember | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Mode, Median, and Mean for Raw Scores | |

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Problems | |

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Measures of Variability | |

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The Range | |

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The Mean Deviation | |

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The Variance and Standard Deviation | |

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The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation | |

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The Meaning of the Standard Deviation | |

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Comparing Measures of Variability | |

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Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Simple Frequency Distribution | |

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Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Grouped Frequency Distribution | |

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Summary | |

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Terms to Remember | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Variance and Standard DEviation for Raw Scores | |

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Problems | |

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Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data | |

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From Description to Decision Making | |

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Probability and the Normal Curve | |

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Rules of Probability | |

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Probability Distributions | |

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The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution | |

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Characteristics of the Normal Curve | |

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The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve | |

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The Area under the Normal Curve | |

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Standard Scores and the Normal Curve | |

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Finding Probability under the Normal Curve | |

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Obtaining Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve | |

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Summary | |

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Terms to Remember | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Probability under the Normal Curve | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve | |

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Problems | |

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Samples and Populations | |

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Sampling Methods | |

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Sampling Error | |

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Sampling Distribution of Means | |

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Standard Error of the Mean | |

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Confidence Intervals | |

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The t Distribution | |

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Estimating Proportions | |

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Summary | |

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Terms to Remember | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using z | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using t | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Proportion | |

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Problems | |

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Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populations | |

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Decision Making | |

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Testing Differences between Means | |

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The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means | |

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The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means | |

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Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means | |

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Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means | |

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Levels of Significance | |

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Standard Error of the Difference between Means | |

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Testing the Difference between Means | |

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Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice | |

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Two Sample Tests of Proportions | |

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One-Tailed Tests | |

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Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means | |

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Summary | |

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Terms to Remember | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Independent Groups | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for the Same Sample Measured Twice | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Proportions | |

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Problems | |

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Analysis of Variance | |

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The Logic of Analysis of Variance | |

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The Sum of Squares | |

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Mean Square | |

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The F Ratio | |

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A Multiple Comparison of Means | |

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Requirements for Using the F Ratio | |

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Summary | |

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Terms to Remember | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Several Independent Groups Using Analysis of Variance | |

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Problems | |

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Nonparametric Tests of Significance | |

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One-Way Chi-Square Test | |

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Two-Way Chi-Square Test | |

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The Median Test | |

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The Mann-Whitney U Test | |

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Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks | |

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Summary | |

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Terms to Remember | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for Nominal-Level Data Using Chi-Square | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for Ordinal-Level Data Using the Mann-Whitney U Test | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Several Groups for Ordinal-Level Data Using the Kruskal-Wallis Test | |

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Problems | |

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Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing for Differences | |

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From Decision Making to Association | |

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Correlation | |

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Strength of Correlation | |

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Direction of Correlation | |

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Curvilinear Correlation | |

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The Correlation Coefficient | |

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Pearson's Correlation Coefficient | |

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The Importance of Scatter Plots | |

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Partial Correlation | |

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Summary | |

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Terms to Remember | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Interval-Level Variables Using Pearson's Correlation | |

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Problems | |

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Regression Analysis | |

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The Regression Model | |

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Interpreting the Regression Line | |

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Prediction Errors | |

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Regression and Pearson's Correlation | |

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Regression and Analysis of Variance | |

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Multiple Regression | |

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Summary | |

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Terms to Remember | |

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Step-by-Step Study Guide: Testing the Effect of an Independent Variable on a Dependent Variable Using Regression Analysis | |

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Problems | |

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Nonparametric Measures of Correlation | |

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Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient | |

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Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma | |

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Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 [times] 2 Table | |

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Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 [times] 2 Tables | |

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Lambda | |

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Elaboration | |

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Summary | |

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Terms to Remember | |

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Step-By-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Ordinal-Level Variables Using Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation | |

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Step-By-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Cross-Tabulated, Ordinal-Level Variables Using Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma | |

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Problems | |

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Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems | |

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Research Situations | |

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Research Solutions | |

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Appendixes | |

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Social Science Data on the Internet | |

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A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics | |

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Tables | |

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List of Formulas | |

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Glossary | |

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Answers to Selected Problems | |

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Index | |