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Elementary Statistics in Social Research

ISBN-10: 0321044606

ISBN-13: 9780321044600

Edition: 8th 2000

Authors: James Allen Fox, Jack Levin

List price: $90.00
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Book details

List price: $90.00
Edition: 8th
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
Publication date: 9/30/1999
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 465
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

Preface
Why the Social Researcher Uses Statistics
The Nature of Social Research
Why Test Hypotheses?
The Stages of Social Research
Using Series of Numbers to Do Social Research
Functions of Statistics
Summary
Terms to Remember
Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: A Student Survey
Description
Organizing the Data
Frequency Distributions of Nominal Data
Comparing Distributions
Proportions and Percentages
Ratios and Rates
Simple Frequency Distributions of Ordinal and Interval Data
Grouped Frequency Distributions of Interval Data
Cumulative Distributions
Percentile Ranks
Dealing with Decimal Data
Flexible Class Intervals
Cross-Tabulations
Graphic Presentations
Summary
Terms to Remember
Problems
Measures of Central Tendency
The Mode
The Median
The Mean
Taking One Step at a Time
Comparing the Mode, Median, and Mean
Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Simple Frequency Distribution
Obtaining the Mode, Median, and Mean from a Grouped Frequency Distribution
Summary
Terms to Remember
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Mode, Median, and Mean for Raw Scores
Problems
Measures of Variability
The Range
The Mean Deviation
The Variance and Standard Deviation
The Raw-Score Formula for Variance and Standard Deviation
The Meaning of the Standard Deviation
Comparing Measures of Variability
Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Simple Frequency Distribution
Obtaining the Variance and Standard Deviation from a Grouped Frequency Distribution
Summary
Terms to Remember
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Variance and Standard DEviation for Raw Scores
Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: Describing Data
From Description to Decision Making
Probability and the Normal Curve
Rules of Probability
Probability Distributions
The Normal Curve as a Probability Distribution
Characteristics of the Normal Curve
The Model and the Reality of the Normal Curve
The Area under the Normal Curve
Standard Scores and the Normal Curve
Finding Probability under the Normal Curve
Obtaining Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve
Summary
Terms to Remember
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Probability under the Normal Curve
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Percentile Ranks from the Normal Curve
Problems
Samples and Populations
Sampling Methods
Sampling Error
Sampling Distribution of Means
Standard Error of the Mean
Confidence Intervals
The t Distribution
Estimating Proportions
Summary
Terms to Remember
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using z
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Mean Using t
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Confidence Interval for the Proportion
Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: Generalizing from Samples to Populations
Decision Making
Testing Differences between Means
The Null Hypothesis: No Difference between Means
The Research Hypothesis: A Difference between Means
Sampling Distribution of Differences between Means
Testing Hypotheses with the Distribution of Differences between Means
Levels of Significance
Standard Error of the Difference between Means
Testing the Difference between Means
Comparing the Same Sample Measured Twice
Two Sample Tests of Proportions
One-Tailed Tests
Requirements for Testing the Difference between Means
Summary
Terms to Remember
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Independent Groups
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for the Same Sample Measured Twice
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Proportions
Problems
Analysis of Variance
The Logic of Analysis of Variance
The Sum of Squares
Mean Square
The F Ratio
A Multiple Comparison of Means
Requirements for Using the F Ratio
Summary
Terms to Remember
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Means for Several Independent Groups Using Analysis of Variance
Problems
Nonparametric Tests of Significance
One-Way Chi-Square Test
Two-Way Chi-Square Test
The Median Test
The Mann-Whitney U Test
Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks
Summary
Terms to Remember
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for Nominal-Level Data Using Chi-Square
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Groups for Ordinal-Level Data Using the Mann-Whitney U Test
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Test of Differences between Several Groups for Ordinal-Level Data Using the Kruskal-Wallis Test
Problems
Looking at the Larger Picture: Testing for Differences
From Decision Making to Association
Correlation
Strength of Correlation
Direction of Correlation
Curvilinear Correlation
The Correlation Coefficient
Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
The Importance of Scatter Plots
Partial Correlation
Summary
Terms to Remember
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Interval-Level Variables Using Pearson's Correlation
Problems
Regression Analysis
The Regression Model
Interpreting the Regression Line
Prediction Errors
Regression and Pearson's Correlation
Regression and Analysis of Variance
Multiple Regression
Summary
Terms to Remember
Step-by-Step Study Guide: Testing the Effect of an Independent Variable on a Dependent Variable Using Regression Analysis
Problems
Nonparametric Measures of Correlation
Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
Correlation Coefficient for Nominal Data Arranged in a 2 [times] 2 Table
Correlation Coefficients for Nominal Data in Larger than 2 [times] 2 Tables
Lambda
Elaboration
Summary
Terms to Remember
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Ordinal-Level Variables Using Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation
Step-By-Step Study Guide: Testing the Strength of Association between Cross-Tabulated, Ordinal-Level Variables Using Goodman's and Kruskal's Gamma
Problems
Applying Statistical Procedures to Research Problems
Research Situations
Research Solutions
Appendixes
Social Science Data on the Internet
A Review of Some Fundamentals of Mathematics
Tables
List of Formulas
Glossary
Answers to Selected Problems
Index