Government of Self and Others Lectures at the College de France, 1982-1983

ISBN-10: 0312572921

ISBN-13: 9780312572921

Edition: N/A

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This lecture, given by Michel Foucault at the College de France, launches an inquiry into the notion of parresiaand continues his rereading of ancient philosophy. Through the study of this notion of truth-telling, of speaking out freely, Foucault reexamines Greek citizenship, showing how the courage of the truth forms the forgotten ethical basis of Athenian democracy. The figure of the philosopher king, the condemnation of writing, and Socrates' rejection of political involvement are some of the many topics of ancient philosophy revisited here.
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Book details

List price: $24.99
Publisher: Picador
Publication date: 4/26/2011
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 5.25" wide x 8.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.748
Language: English

Michel Foucault was born on October 15, 1926, in Poitiers, France, and was educated at the Sorbonne, in Paris. He taught at colleges all across Europe, including the Universities of Lill, Uppsala, Hamburg, and Warsaw, before returning to France. There he taught at the University of Paris and the College of France, where he served as the chairman of History of Systems of Thought until his death. Regarded as one of the great French thinkers of the twentieth century, Foucault's interest was in the human sciences, areas such as psychiatry, language, literature, and intellectual history. He made significant contributions not just to the fields themselves, but to the way these areas are studied, and is particularly known for his work on the development of twentieth-century attitudes toward knowledge, sexuality, illness, and madness. Foucault's initial study of these subjects used an archaeological method, which involved sifting through seemingly unrelated scholarly minutia of a certain time period in order to reconstruct, analyze, and classify the age according to the types of knowledge that were possible during that time. This approach was used in Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, for which Foucault received a medal from France's Center of Scientific Research in 1961, The Birth of the Clinic, The Order of Things, and The Archaeology of Knowledge. Foucault also wrote Discipline and Punishment: The Birth of the Prison, a study of the ways that society's views of crime and punishment have developed, and The History of Sexuality, which was intended to be a six-volume series. Before he could begin the final two volumes, however, Foucault died of a neurological disorder in 1984.

MICHEL FOUCAULT acknowledged as the pre-eminent philosopher of France in the 1970s and 1980s, continues to have enormous impact throughout the world in many disciplines. ARNOLD I. DAVIDSON is the Robert O. Anderson Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago, USAnbsp;and Professor of the History of Political Philosophy at the University of Pisa, Italy. He is co-editor of the volume Michel Foucault: Philosophie . GRAHAM BURCHELL is Translator, and has written essays on Michel Foucault. He is an Editor of The Foucault Effect .

Translator's Note
5 January 1983: First Hour
Remarks on method
Study of Kant's text: What is Enlightenment?
Conditions of publication: journals
The encounter between Christian Aufkl�rung and Jewish Haskala: freedom of conscience
Philosophy and present reality
The question of the Revolution
Two critical filiations
5 January 1983: Second Hour
The idea of tutelage (minorit�): neither natural powerlessness nor authoritarian deprivation of rights
Way out from the condition of tutelage and critical activity
The shadow of the three Critiques
The difficulty of emancipation: laziness and cowardice; the predicted failure of liberators
Motivations of the condition of tutelage: superimposition of obedience and absence of reasoning; confusion between the private and public use of reason
The problematic turn at the end of Kant's text
12 January 1983: First Hour
Reminders of method
Definition of the subject to be studied this year
Parresia and culture of self
Galen's On the Passions and Errors of the Soul
Parresia: difficulty in defining the notion; bibliographical reference points
An enduring, plural, and ambiguous notion
Plato faced with the tyrant of Syracuse: an exemplary scene of parresia
The echo of Oedipus
Parresia versus demonstration, teaching, and discussion
The element of risk
12 January 1983: Second Hour
Irreducibility of the parrhesiastic to the performative utterance: opening up of an unspecified risk/public expression of a personal conviction/bringing a free courage into play
Pragmatics and dramatics of discourse
Classical use of the notion of parresia: democracy (Polybius) and citizenship (Euripides).
19 January 1983: First Hour
Ion in the mythology and history of Athens
Political context of Euripides' tragedy: the Nicias peace
History of Ion's birth
Alethurgic schema of the tragedy
The implication of the three truth-tellings: oracle, confession (l'aveu), and political discourse
Structural comparison of Ion and Oedipus the King
The adventures of truth-telling in Ion: the double half-lie
19 January 1983: Second Hour
Ion: A nobody, son of nobody
Three categories of citizen
Consequences of political intrusion by Ion: private hatreds and public tyranny
In search of a mother
Parresia irreducible to the actual exercise of power and to the citizen's status
The agonistic game of truth-telling: free and risky
Historical context: the Cleon/Nicias debate
Creusa's anger
26 January 1983: First Hour
Continuation and end of the comparison between Ion and Oedipus: the truth does not arise from an investigation but from the clash of passions
The rule of illusions and passions
The cry of confession and accusation
G. Dum�zil's analyses of Apollo
Dum�zil's categories applied to Ion
Tragic modulation of the theme of the voice
Tragic modulation of the theme of gold
26 January 1983: Second Hour
Tragic modulation of the theme of fertility
Parresia as imprecation: public denunciation by the weak of the injustice of the powerful
Creusa's second confession (aveu): the voice of confession (confession)
Final episodes: from murder plan to Athena's appearance
2 February 1983: First Hour
Reminder of the Polybius text
Return to Ion: divine and human veridictions
The three forms of parresia: statutory-political; judicial; moral
Political parresia: its connection with democracy; its basis in an agonistic structure
Return to the Polybius text: the isegoria/parresia relationship
Politeia and dunasteia: thinking of politics as experience
Parresia in Euripides: The Phoenician Women; Hippolytus; The Bacchae; Orestes
The Trial of Orestes
2 February 1983: Second Hour
The rectangle of parresia: formal condition, de facto condition, truth condition, and moral condition
Example of the correct functioning of democratic parresia in Thucydides: three discourses of Pericles
Bad parresia in Isocrates
9 February 1983: First Hour
Parresia: everyday usage; political usage
Reminder of three exemplary scenes: Thucydides; Isocrates; Plutarch
Lines of evolution of parresia
The four great problems of ancient political philosophy: the ideal city; the respective merits of democracy and autocracy; addressing the Prince's soul; the philosophy/rhetoric relationship
Study of three texts by Plato
9 February 1983: Second Hour
Plato's Letters: the context
Study of letter V: the phone of constitutions; reasons for non-involvement
Study of Letter VII
Dion's history
Plato's political autobiography
The journey to Sicily
Why Plato accepts: kairos; philia; ergon
16 February 1983: First Hour
Philosophical ergon
Comparison with the Alcibiades
The reality of philosophy: the courageous address to power
First condition of reality: listening, the first circle
The philosophical oeuvre: a choice; a way; an application
The reality of philosophy as work of self on self (second circle)
16 February 1983: Second Hour
The failure of Dionysius
The Platonic rejection of writing
Mathemata versus sunousia
Philosophy as practice of the soul
The philosophical digression of Letter VII: the five elements of knowledge
The third circle: the circle of knowledge
The philosopher and the legislator
Final remarks on contemporary interpretations of Plato
23 February 1983: First Hour
The enigmatic blandness of Plato's political advice
The advice to Dionysius
The diagnosis, practice of persuasion, proposal of a regime
Advice to Dion's friends
Study of Letter VIII
Parresia underpins political advice
23 February 1983: Second Hour
Philosophy and politics: necessary relationship but impossible coincidence
Cynical and Platonic game with regard to politics
The new historical conjuncture: thinking a new political unit beyond the city-state
From the public square to the Prince's soul
The Platonic theme of the philosopher-king
2 March 1983: First Hour
Reminders about political parresia
Point in the evolution of political parresia
The major questions of ancient philosophy
Study of a text by Lucian
Ontology of discourses of veridiction
Socratic speech in the Apology
The paradox of the political non-involvement of Socrates
2 March 1983: Second Hour
End of study of Socrates' Apology: parresia/rhetoric opposition
Study of the Phaedrus: general plan of the dialogue
The conditions of good logos
Truth as permanent function of discourse
Dialectic and psychagogy
Philosophical parresia
9 March 1983: First Hour
The historical turnaround of parresia: from the political game to the philosophical game
Philosophy as practice of parresia: the example of Aristippus
The philosophical life as manifestation of the truth
The permanent address to power
The interpellation of each
Portrait of the Cynic in Epictetus
Pericles and Socrates
Modern philosophy and courage of the truth
9 March 1983: Second Hour
Study of the Gorgias
The obligation of confession (aveu) in Plato: the context of liquidation of rhetoric
The three qualities of Callicles: episteme; parresia; eunoia
Agonistic game against egalitarian system
Socratic speech: basanos and homologia
Course Context
Index of Names
Index of Concepts and Notions
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